Thursday, 15 December 2016
Is Takwin, Creation, an Eternal Attribute?
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
Imam al-Maturidi (r.a.) said that Takwin, Creation, is an Eternal Attribute that Subsists with Allah’s (s.w.t.) Being, as do all of His Attributes, and that it is distinct from that which is Brought into existence, mukawwan, and that it is linked with that which is Brought into existence in the world and every part of it from the time of its inception. Just as Allah’s (s.w.t.) Will is Eternal and linked with that which is Willed at the time of its existence, so too is His Eternal Omnipotence linked with that which is Decreed.
Shaykh Sa’id Fawdhah (r.a.) wrote, in Sharh Risalah al-Ikhtilaf, “In other words, Takwin is a Pre-Eternal Attribute that Subsists with Allah and has a contingently effective lineage with that which is Brought into existence at the time it is Brought into being. For this reason, the scholars say that Takwin is different from that which is Brought into existence, al-mukawwan, because Takwin is a Pre-Eternal Attribute and that which is Brought into existence is contingent. For this reason, the claim of some of the Rashawi that the Maturidiyyah agree with them that contingents subsist within Allah’s Entity is incorrect. This is fallacious because according to the Maturidiyyah, Takwin is Pre-Eternal and not contingent. It is not to be called an Attribute in an unrestricted manner; rather it is an Attribute from which actions issue forth.”
Imam al-Ash’ari (r.a.) said that it is a contingent Attribute that does not subsist with Allah’s (s.w.t.) Being and according to him, it is from the Attributes of Action and not from the Eternal Attributes. As he saw it, the Attributes of Action are all contingent, such as Takwin and Bringing into existence and the emergence of the world with the Statement, “Be.” Therefore, according to Imam al-Ash’ari (r.a.), Takwin is a description for the self-same effective linkage of power by taking note of its effect, whereas according to Imam al-Maturidi (r.a.), it is the Pre-Eternal Attribute from which the Creation and that which is brought into existence come.