Sunday, 1 March 2015
A Collation of Books Refuting the Doctrines of the Wahhabi Sect
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
This are the names and the titles of some excellent refutations of the Wahhabi sect from the earliest days of the Wahhabi movement to the present.
Imam Ahmad al-Ahsa’i al-Miswri (r.a.) wrote an unpublished manuscript of a refutation of the Wahhabi sect. His son, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Lathif al-Ahsa’i (r.a.) also wrote a book refuting them.
Sayyid ‘Abd ar-Rahman Al-Ahsa’i (r.a.) wrote a sixty-seven verse poem which begins with the verse:
“A confusion came about like nightfall covering the skies,
And became widespread almost reaching the whole world.”
Imam ‘Abd al-Hayy al-‘Amrawi and Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad, published by Qarawiyyin University, Morocco, wrote at-Tahdhir min al-Ightirar bi ma Ja’a fi Kitab al-Hiwar, “Warning against Being Fooled by the Contents of the Book”. The book in question is by “A Debate with al-Maliki” which is an attack on Imam ibn ‘Alawi al-Maliki (q.s.) by a Wahhabi writer.
Imam ‘Atha’illah al-Makki (r.a.) wrote asw-Swarim al-Hindi fi al-‘Unuq an-Najdi, “The Indian Scimitar on the Najdi’s Neck.”
Imam ‘Abd ar-Rabbih ibn Sulayman ash-Shafi’i al-Azhari (r.a.), the author of Sharh Jami’ al-Uswul li Ahadits ar-Rasul, a basic book of uswul al-fiqh, wrote Faydh al-Wahhab fi Bayan Ahl al-Haqq wa man Dhallah ‘an asw-Swawab, “al-Wahhab’s Outpouring in Differentiating the True Muslims from Those Who Deviated from the Truth”, which comprised four volumes. ‘al-Wahhab’ here refers to Allah (s.w.t.).
Shaykh Salama al-‘Azzami (r.a.) wrote al-Barahin as-Sati’at. “The Radiant Proofs.”
Imam ‘Abd al-Wahhab ibn Ahmad al-Barakat ash-Shafi’i al-Ahmadi al-Makki (r.a.) wrote an unpublished manuscript refuting of the Wahhabi sect.
Shaykh Musthafa al-Maswri al-Bulaqi (r.a.), wrote a refutation to San’a’i’s poem in which the latter had praised the heretic, ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab. It is found in Imam Samnudi’s (r.a.) Sa’adat ad-Darayn, and consists in 126 verses beginning thus:
“By the Glory of the Owner of glory, not baseness, do I overcome;
And by Allah, not by creatures, do I seek guidance to Allah.”
Imam Muhammad Sa’id Ramadhan al-Buwthi (r.a.) wrote two major refutations: as-Salafiyyatu Marhalatun Zamaniyyatun Mubarakatun laa Madzhabun Islami, “The Salafiyyah is a Blessed Historical Period not an Islamic School of Law”; and al-Lamadzhabiyyah Akhtaru Bid’atin Tuhaddidu ash-Shari’ah al-Islamiyyah, “Non-Madzhabism is the most Dangerous Innovation Presently Menacing Islamic Law”.
Shaykh ad-Dahish ibn ‘Abdullah from the Arab University of Morocco wrote Munazharah ‘Ilmiyyah bayna ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ash-Sharif wa al-Imam Ahmad ibn Idris fi ar-Radd ‘ala Wahhabiyyat Najd wa Tihamah, wa ‘Aswir, “Scholarly Debate between the Sharif and Ahmad ibn Idris against the Wahhabis of Najd, Tihamah, and ‘Aswir”.
Imam Ahmad ibn Zayni ad-Dahlan (r.a.), the Mufti of Makkah and Shaykh al-Islam, highest religious authority in the Ottoman jurisdiction, for the Hijaz region, wrote three major works against them. They are ad-Durar as-Saniyyah fi ar-Radd ‘ala al-Wahhabiyyah, “The Pure Pearls in Answering the Wahhabis”; Fitnat al-Wahhabiyyah, “The Wahhabi Fitnah”; and Khulaswat al-Kalam fi Bayan Umara’ al-Balad al-Haram, “The Summation Concerning the Leaders of the Sacrosanct Country”, a history of the Wahhabi fitnah in Najd and the Hijaz.
Shaykh Hamdullah ad-Dajwi (r.a.) wrote al-Baswa’ir li Munkiri at-Tawaswswul la Amtsal Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab, “The Evident Proofs against Those Who Deny the Seeking of Intercession Like Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab”.
Shaykh al-Islam, Imam Dawud ibn Sulayman al-Baghdadi al-Hanafi (r.a.), wrote al-Minha al-Wahbiyyah fi Radd al-Wahhabiyyah, “The Divine Dispensation Concerning the Wahhabi Deviation”; and Ashadd al-Jihad fi Ibthal Da’wah al-Ijtihad, “The Most Violent Jihad in Proving False Those Who Falsely Claim Ijtihad”.
The muhaddits, Imam Swalih al-Falani al-Maghribi (r.a.) authored a large volume collating the refutation of the scholars of the four madzahib al-fiqh of Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab.
Habib Muhammad ‘Ashiq ar-Rahman (r.a.) wrote, ‘Aqab Allah al-Mujdi li Junun al-Munkir an-Najdi, “Allah’s Terrible Punishment for the Mad Rejecter from Najd”.
Sayyid al-‘Alawi ibn Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn al-Quthb al-Haddad (q.s.) also wrote an unpublished manuscript.
Sayyid ‘Abdullah ibn `Alawi al-Haddad ash-Shafi’i (q.s.), the son of Sayyid al-‘Alawi ibn Ahmad al-Haddad (q.s.), wrote as-Sayf al-Bathir li ‘Unq al-Munkir ‘ala al-Akabir, “The Sharp Sword for the Neck of the Assailant of Great Scholars”. He also wrote another, unpublished manuscript of about 100 folios titled Miswbah al-Anam wa Jala’ az-Zalam fi Radd Shubah al-Bid’i an-Najdi Allati Adalla biha al-‘Awamm, “The Lamp of Mankind and the Illumination of Darkness Concerning the Refutation of the Errors of the Innovator from Najd by Which He Had Misled the Common People.” This manuscript was published in 1907.
Shaykh Musthafa al-Hamami al-Miswri (r.a.) wrote Ghawts al-‘Ibad bi Bayan ar-Rashad, “The Helper of Allah’s Servants according to the Affirmation of Guidance”.
Shaykh Ibrahim al-Hilmi al-Qadiri al-Iskandari (r.a.) wrote Jalal al-Haqq fi Kashf Ahwal Ashrar al-Khalq, “The Splendour of Truth in Exposing the Worst of People”, which was published in 1934.
Sayyid ‘Amili Muhsin al-Husayni (r.a.) wrote Kashf al-Irtiyab fi Atba’ Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab, “The Dispelling of Doubt Concerning the Followers of Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab”.
Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abd al-Lathif ash-Shafi’i (r.a.) wrote Tajrid Sayf al-Jihad ‘ala Mudda’i al-Ijtihad, “The Drawing of the Sword of Jihad against the False Claimants to Ijtihad”.
The family of Imam ibn ‘Abd ar-Razzaq al-Hanbali (r.a.) in Zubara and Bahrain possess both manuscripts and printed refutations by scholars of the four schools of fiqh, from Makkah, Madina, al-Ahsa’, Basra, Baghdad, Aleppo, Yemen and other regions. Ahsa’ refers to the Arabian Peninsula.
Shaykh Sulayman ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab an-Najdi (r.a.), the elder brother of Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab, wrote as-Sawa’iq al-Ilahiyyah fi ar-Radd ‘ala al-Wahhabiyyah, “Divine Lightning in Answering the Wahhabis”. The prefaces were by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Kurdi ash-Shafi’i (r.a.) and Shaykh Muhammad Hayya as-Sindhi (r.a.), the teachers of Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab’s. They said to the effect that Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab is ‘dhal mudhil’, “misguided and misguiding”.
Sayyid Muhammad Amin ibn ‘Abidin al-Hanafi (r.a.) wrote Radd al-Muhtar ‘ala ad-Durr al-Mukhtar, “Answer to the Perplexed: A Commentary on The Chosen Pearl”. He addressed the heresy in volume 3, Kitab al-Iman, Bab al-Bughat, the Book of Belief, Chapter on Rebels. This was published in 1855.
Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn ‘Afaliq al-Hanbali (r.a.) wrote Tahakkum al-Muqallidin bi man Idda’a Tajdid ad-Din, “Sarcasm of the Muqallidin against the False Claimants to the Renewal of Religion. This is a very comprehensive book refuting the Wahhabi heresy and posting questions which Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab and his followers were unable to answer for the most part. They are still unable to address these points to this very day.
Imam ‘Afif ad-Din ‘Abdullah ibn Dawud al-Hanbali (r.a.) wrote as-Sawa’iq wa ar-Ru’ud, “Lightning and Thunder”, an important book in 20 chapters. According to the Mufti of Yemen, Imam ‘Alawi ibn Ahmad al-Haddad (q.s.), “This book has received the approval of the ‘ulama of Basra, Baghdad, Aleppo, and Ahsa’. It was summarised by Qadhi Muhammad ibn Bashir, the qadhi of Ra’s al-Khayma in Oman.”
Shaykh al-Libi ibn Ghalbun (r.a.) wrote a refutation in forty verses of as-San’a’i’s poem in praise of Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab. It is in Imam Samnudi’s (r.a.) Sa’adat ad-Darayn and begins thus:
“My salutation is upon the people of truth and guidance,
And not upon Najd nor the one who settled in Najd.”
Imam ‘Ulyawi ibn Khalifah al-Azhari (r.a.) wrote Hadzihi ‘Aqidatu as-Salaf wa al-Khalaf fi Dzat Allahi Ta’ala wa Swifatihi wa Af’alihi wa al-Jawab asw-Swahih li ma Waqa’a fihi al-Khilaf min al-Furu’ bayna al-Da’in li as-Salafiyyah wa Atba’ al-Madzahib al-Arba’ah al-Islamiyyah, “This is the Doctrine of the Predecessors and the Descendants Concerning the Divergences in the Branches between Those Who Call to as-Salafiyyah and the Followers of the Four Islamic Schools of Law”. This was published in 1977.
Shaykh Muhammad Zahid Kawtsari al-Hanafi (r.a.) wrote Maqalat al-Kawtsari.
Shaykh Swalih al-Kawwash at-Tunisi’s (r.a.) refutation of the Wahhabi sect is contained in Imam Samnudi’s (r.a.) Sa’adat ad-Darayn fi ar-Radd ‘ala al-Firqatayn.
Shaykh Hasan Khazbik (r.a.) wrote al-Maqalat al-Wafiyyat fi ar-Radd ‘ala al-Wahhabiyyah, “Complete Treatise in Refuting the Wahhabis”.
Shaykh Muhammad Hasanayn Makhluf (r.a.) wrote Risalat fi Hukm at-Tawaswswul bi al-Anbiya’ wa al-Awliya’, “Treatise on the Ruling Concerning the Use of Prophets and Saints as Intermediaries”.
The muhaddits, Imam Muhammad al-Hasan ibn ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Husayni (q.s.) wrote Mafahimu Yajibu an Tuswahhah, “Notions That Should be Corrected”. This was published in its 4th edition as Muhammad al-Insanu al-Kamil, “Muhammad, the Perfect Human Being”, in 1984.
Shaykh Mashrifi al-Maliki al-Jaza’iri (r.a.) wrote Izhar al-‘Uquq Mimman Mana’a at-Tawaswswul bi an-Nabi’ wa al-Wali asw-Swaduq, “The Exposure of the Disobedience of Those Who Forbid Using the Intermediary of the Prophet and the Truthful Saints”.
Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Ibrahim al-Mirghani ath-Tha’ifi (r.a.) wrote Tahridh al-Aghbiya’ ‘ala al-Istighatsa bi al-Anbiya’ wa al-Awliya’, “The Provocations of the Ignorant against Seeking the Help of Prophets and Saints”.
Shaykh Mu’in al-Haqq ad-Dahlawi (r.a.) wrote Sayf al-Jabbar al-Maslul ‘ala ‘Ada’ al-Abrar, “The Sword of the Almighty Drawn against the Enemies of the Pure Ones”.
Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Isa al-Muwaysi al-Yamani (r.a.) wrote an unpublished manuscript of a refutation of the Wahhabi sect.
The qadhi and great muhaddits, Imam Yusuf ibn Isma’il an-Nabhani ash-Shafi’i (q.s.) wrote Shawahid al-Haqq fi al-Istighatsa bi Sayyid al-Khalq, “The Proofs of Truth in the Seeking of the Intercession of the Prophet”.
Imam Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Qabbani al-Baswri ash-Shafi’i (r.a.) wrote a manuscript treatise in approximately 10 chapters, refuting them.
Shaykh ‘Abdullah al-Qadumi an-Nablusi al-Hanbali (r.a.) wrote Rihlat, “Journey”.
Imam Muhammad Hasan al-Qazwini (r.a.) wrote al-Barahin al-Jaliyyah fi Raf` Tashkikat al-Wahhabiyyah, “The Plain Demonstrations That Dispel the Aspersions of the Wahhabis”, which was published in 1987.
Imam al-Qudsi (r.a.) wrote as-Suyuf as-Siqal fi ‘Anaq man Ankara ‘ala al-Awliya’ ba’d al-Intiqal, “The Burnished Swords on the Necks of Those Who Deny the Role of Saints after Their Leaving This World”.
Sayyid Yusuf ibn Hashim ar-Rifa’i, President of the World Union of Islamic Propagation and Information, wrote Adillat Ahl as-Sunnah wa al-Jama’at aw ar-Radd al-Muhkam al-Mani’ ‘ala Munkarat wa Shubuhat ibn Mani’ fi Tahajjumihi ‘ala as-Sayyid Muhammad ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki, “The Proofs of the People of the Way of the Prophet and the Muslim Community or the Strong and Decisive Refutation of ibn Mani’’s Aberrations and Aspersions in his Assault on Muhammad ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki”.
Imam Ibrahim as-Samnudi al-Manswuri (r.a.) wrote Sa’adat ad-Darayn fi ar-Radd ‘ala al-Firqatayn al-Wahhabiyyah wa Muqallidat azh-Zhahiriyyah, “Bliss in the Two Abodes: Refutation of the Two Sects, the Wahhabi and Zhahiri Followers”.
Imam Hasan ibn ‘Ali as-Saqqaf ash-Shafi’i, from the Islamic Research Institute in Amman, Jordan, wrote several books. They include al-Ighatsa bi Adillat al-Istighatsa wa ar-Radd al-Mubin ‘ala Munkiri at-Tawaswswul, “The Mercy of Allah in the Proofs of Seeking Intercession and the Clear Answer to Those who Reject It”; ‘Ilqam al-Hajr li al-Muthatawil ‘ala al-Asha’ira min al-Bashar, “The Stoning of All Those Who Attack Ash’aris”; and Qamus Shata’im al-Albani wa al-Alfazh al-Munkarat Allati Yathluquha fi Haqq ‘Ulama al-Ummah wa Fudhala’iha wa Ghayrihim, “Encyclopedia of al-Albani’s Abhorrent Expressions Which He Uses Against the Scholars of the Community, Its Eminent Men and Others”. This was published in Amman by Dar al-Imam an-Nawawi in 1993.
Imam Ahmad ibn Muhammad as-Sawi al-Miswri (r.a.) mentioned them in his Hashiyat ‘ala al-Jalalayn, “Commentary on the Exegesis of the Two Jalal al-Din”.
Imam Sayf ad-Din Ahmad ibn Muhammad wrote in English, “al-Albani Unveiled: An Exposition of His Errors and Other Important Issues”, which was published in 1994.
Sayyid Musthafa ibn Ahmad ibn Hasan ash-Shatti al-Atsari al-Hanbali, the Mufti of Syria, wrote an-Nuqul ash-Shar’iyyah fi ar-Radd ‘ala al-Wahhabiyyah, “The Legal Proofs in Answering the Wahhabis”.
Imam Taqi ad-Din as-Subki (r.a.) wrote a refutation of Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah’s (r.a.) dangerous ideas that later inspired the Wahhabi sect. Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.) repented from them eventually. But generations later, Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab took them up, leading to their anthropomorphism. That book is ad-Durra al-Mudiyyah fi ar-Radd ‘ala ibn Taymiyyah, “The Luminous Pearl: A Refutation of ibn Taymiyyah”. The recently published version was edited by Shaykh Muhammad Zahid al-Kawtsari (r.a.). Imam as-Subki (r.a.) further wrote a refutation of Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.) and his foremost student, Imam ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (q.s.), ar-Rasa’il as-Subkiyyah fi ar-Radd ‘ala ibn Taymiyyah wa Tilmidzihi ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, “as-Subki’s treatises in Answer to ibn Taymiyyah and his pupil, ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah”. He then wrote one specifically against Imam ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (q.s.), addressed as ibn Zafil, as-Sayf as-Saqil fi ar-Radd ‘ala ibn Zafil, “The Burnished Sword in Refuting ibn Zafil”. Imam Taqi ad-Din as-Subki (r.a.) also wrote Shifa’ as-Siqam fi Ziyarat Khayr al-Anam, “The Healing of the Sick in Visiting the Best of Creation”, in response to Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah’s (r.a.) outrageous fatwa that it is haram to travel for the purpose of ziyarat of the Rawdhah of Rasulullah (s.a.w.). This caused Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.) to retract his fatwa.
Imam Thahir Sunbul al-Hanafi ath-Tha’ifi (r.a.) wrote Sima al-Intiswar li al-Awliya’ al-Abrar, “The Mark of Victory Belongs to Allah’s Pure Friends”.
Sayyid ath-Thabathaba’i al-Baswri (q.s.) also wrote a reply to San’a’i’s poem which was excerpted in Imam Samnudi’s (r.a.) Sa’adat ad-Darayn. After reading it, San’a’i reversed his position and said, “I have repented from what I said concerning the Najdi.”
Imam Isma’il at-Tamimi al-Maliki (r.a.), the Shaykh al-Islam in Tunis: wrote a refutation of a treatise of Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.
Imam al-Mahdi al-Wazzani (r.a.), the Mufti of Fes, Morocco, wrote a refutation of Muhammad ‘Abduh’s prohibition of tawaswswul. Muhammad ‘Abduh was not a Salafi per se, although he was strongly influenced by Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab and, in turn, strongly influenced the movement itself with his ideas of secularism, modernism and neo-Mu’tazilism. He provided an intellectual basis for their rejection of taqlid.
Imam Jamil Swidq az-Zahawi al-Baghdadi (r.a.), the Mufti of Baghdad and descendent of Khalid ibn al-Walid (r.a.), wrote al-Fajr asw-Swadiq fi ar-Radd ‘ala Munkiri at-Tawaswswul wa al-Khawariq, “The True Dawn in Refuting Those Who Deny the Seeking of Intercession and the Miracles of Saints”, which was published in 1905, in Egypt.
Imam Muhammad Swalih az-Zamzami ash-Shafi’i (r.a.), the Imam of the Maqam Ibrahim in Makkah, wrote a book in 20 chapters against them according to Imam al-Haddad (q.s.).
Shaykh Qiyam ad-Din Ahmad wrote in English, “The Wahhabi Movement in India”, which was published in New Delhi in 1994.
All these books are just the tip of the iceberg in terms of the volume of refutation from our scholars. Many of these books are relatively rare, neglected or simply lost. But they provide abundant proof that the Wahhabi sect are considered out of the fold of Islam, deviant and guilty of kufr and shirk.