Monday, 27 October 2014
No Basis for Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah & Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah in the Qur'an & Sunnah
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
The following is adapted from “Refutations of Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah’s (r.a.) Two Doctrines of Tawhid” by Ustadz Abu Hamid ibn Marzuq.
Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (r.a.), the imam of the supposed madzhab if Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.), never said that tawhid consisted in two parts: tawhid ar-rububiyyah and tawhid al-uluhiyyah. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (r.a.) also never said, “Whoever does not know tawhid al-uluhiyyah, then his knowledge of tawhid ar-rububiyyah is not taken into account because the idolaters also had such knowledge.” This is not part of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s (r.a.) doctrine of ‘aqidah, and is not found in the compilations of his followers such as Imam ibn al-Jawzi’s (r.a.) Manaqib Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and other books.
This innovated doctrine of Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.) is not found in the works and teachings of any of the Salaf: the swahabah, the tab’in, and the taba’ tabi’in. And none of them made any sort of definition of tawhid close to the statement: “Whoever does not know tawhid al-uluhiyyah, then his knowledge of tawhid ar-rububiyyah is not taken into account because the idolaters also had such knowledge.” And neither does this doctrine have any basis in the Qur’an and the sunnah.
The da’wah of the Prophet (s.a.w.) to the people was in order that they witness that there is no god except Allah (s.w.t.) Alone and that Prophet Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and in order that they repudiate idol-worship. One of the most famous illustrations of this is the swahih narration of Mu’adz ibn Jabal (r.a.) when the Prophet (s.a.w.) sent him to govern Yemen. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said to him, “Invite them to the witnessing that [there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of God]. If they obey this, at that time tell them that they are obligated to pray five prayers daily...”
The following hadits is recorded in five of the Kutub Swahih as-Sittah, and Imam ibn Hibban (r.a.) declared it sound. A Bedouin Arab reported the sighting of the new moon to the Prophet (s.a.w.) and the latter ordered the people to fast without asking this man other than to confirm the two witnessings. According to the innovated doctrine of Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.), it would have been necessary for the Prophet (s.a.w.) to call all people to tawhid al-uluhiyyah of which they were ignorant, as opposed to tawhid ar-rububiyyah, they already knew.
With regards to the first hadits, if we follow the idea of Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.), the Prophet (s.a.w.) should have said to Mu’adz (r.a.), “Invite them to tawhid al-uluhiyyah”; and he should have asked the Bedouin who had sighted the new moon of Ramadhan, “Do you know tawhid al-uluhiyyah?”
It is not mentioned anywhere in the Qur’an that tawhid al-uluhiyyah is a measure of faith and fidelity to Islam. Rather, Allah (s.w.t.) Commanded the utterance of kalimat al-tawhid, for He said as He addressed His Prophet (s.a.w.):
Know, therefore, that there is no god but Allah ... (Surah Muhammad:19)
And He Spoke similarly in all of the verses of tawhid that are Mentioned in the Qur’an, including Surah al-Ikhlasw, which is equivalent to a third of the Qur’an in its Message.
If this doctrine of Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.) were correct, Allah (s.w.t.) servants would all know about tawhid ar-rububiyyah and tawhid al-uluhiyyah. Allah (s.w.t.) would have made it explicitly clear to them and will not punish them for their ignorance of ‘half’ of tawhid. Instead, He Said to them:
… This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I Perfected your religion for you, Completed My Favour upon you, and have Chosen for you Islam as your religion ... (Surah al-Ma’idah:3)
And we seek Refuge in Allah (s.w.t.) from the treacheries of the tongue and the corruption of folly.