Friday, 18 January 2013

Mawlid an-Nabi: Evidence from Qur’an & Sunnah

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

The following is an article providing comprehensive evidence of the Mawlid.  It is taken from “Mawlid an-Nabi: Evidence from Qur’an & Sunnah; the Salaf & the Khalaf” by Ustadz Kamran Farooq on 2nd January 2012.

The Mawlid as it is celebrated today did not exist in the first three generations of Islam’s history, and so according to the literal sense, it is an innovation, a bid’ah.  However, as we have seen on the understanding of innovation as it applies to the fundamentals of Islamic jurisprudence, the Salaf and the scholars after them such as Imam ash-Shafi’i (r.a.), Imam an-Nawawi (r.a.) and so forth defined reprehensible innovations as those things which both: did not exist in the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.), and cannot be inferred from a primary basis in the Qur’an or sunnah.  Both of these conditions have to be met for something to be considered a ‘reprehensible innovation’ according to the shari’ah.  Therefore, in regards to the Mawlid, it cannot be considered a reprehensible or forbidden innovation, because it does have an inferable basis in the Qur’an and sunnah, as we shall see below.

Remembering the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) birthday is an act that the scholars of Islam have accepted and still accept.  This means that Allah (s.w.t.) Accepts it, according to the saying of ibn Mas’ud (r.a.): “Whatever the Muslims see as right, then it is good to Allah, and whatever is seen by the Muslims as evil, it is evil to Allah.”  This hadits was recorded by Imam Ahmad (r.a.), Imam Hakim in his Swahih, Imam Abu Dawud ath-Thayalisi in his Musnad, Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.), Imam al-Bazzar (r.a.) in his Musnad, Imam Abu Nu’aym (r.a.), Imam al-Baghawi (r.a.), and Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in his Kitab al-‘Itiqad.  How then can someone declare the belief of the vast majority of Muslims a bid’ah?

To rejoice and express happiness for the Prophet (s.a.w.) coming to us is an obligation Given by Allah (s.w.t.) through Qur’an, as He Says:


… “In the Bounty of Allah and in His Mercy ― in that let them rejoice.” …. (Surah Yunus:58)

ibn ‘Abbas (r.a.) said that “His Mercy” refers to the Prophet (s.a.w.), as documented in the many exegeses of that verse.  What greater Mercy did Allah (s.w.t.) Give to us than the Prophet (s.a.w.) himself, of whom Allah (s.w.t.) Says:


Allah did Confer a Great Favour on the believers when He Sent among them a Messenger from among themselves ... (Surah Ali ‘Imran:164)

And also:


Now hath come unto you a messenger from amongst yourselves: it grieves him that ye should perish: ardently anxious is he over you: to the believers is he most kind and merciful. (Surah at-Tawbah:128)

And:


We Sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all creatures. (Surah al-Anbiya’:107)

Allah (s.w.t.) also Commands us to honour and venerate the Prophet (s.a.w.), and Informs us that He Sent him:


In order that ye (O men) may believe in Allah and His Messenger that ye may assist and honour Him and celebrate His praises morning and evening. (Surah al-Fath:9)

The scholars of tafsir are in two camps concerning this verse.  The first group considers all of the pronouns to refer to the Prophet (s.a.w.).  The second considers the last pronoun with regards to “glorify Him” to refer to Allah (s.w.t.) but the rest to refer to the Prophet (s.a.w.), in such a way that honouring and venerating the Prophet (s.a.w.) naturally leads to and is considered glorification of Allah (s.w.t.), which the wording of this verse implies.

Allah (s.w.t.) Says:


… and whoever holds in honour the Symbols of Allah, such (honour) should come truly from piety of heart. (Surah al-Hajj:32)

There is no doubt that he and the other prophets are among the greatest symbols of Allah (s.w.t.).

Imam Shihab ad-Din Abu Shamma ash-Shafi’i (r.a.), who was one of the main teachers of Imam an-Nawawi (r.a.), wrote in his book the impetus to reject the innovations and invented matters the following: “Among the best of what has been newly introduced in our era is what occurs every year during the time of his birth, such as charity, show of happiness and joy, and other good deeds.  For this - which includes beneficence towards the needy - is a manifestation of love of him and veneration of him in the heart of the one who commemorates that event, and an act of gratitude to Allah for the Great Bounty He Blessed us with in Creating His Messenger (s.a.w.), whom He Sent as a Mercy to all the people ...”

Remembrance of the birth of the Prophet (s.a.w.) is an occasion for and an encouragement towards praying for blessings upon the Prophet (s.a.w.) and praising him, which is an obligation on us through Allah’s (s.w.t.) Order in the verse:


Allah, and His angels, Send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe!  Send ye blessings on him and salute him, with all respect. (Surah al-Ahzab:56)

Coming together and remembering the Prophet (s.a.w.) causes us to pray for blessings upon him and to praise him, and is a means of consolidating frequent remembrance and love of him in our hearts, which is one of the manifestations of the experience of the sweetness of true faith.  And it is known among the scholars of the fundamentals of fiqh that “any action which aids one in performing an obligation is itself praiseworthy and recommended.”  Therefore, this is one of the Qur’anic verses that serve as a primary basis for the Mawlid, thus taking it out of the category of reprehensible innovation into praiseworthy innovation.

That obligation, furthermore, is Mentioned in the plural: Allah (s.w.t.) and His angels are continuously Sending blessings upon and praising the Prophet (s.a.w.) in a heavenly gathering.  It is entirely incorrect, therefore, to say that sending blessings, swalawat, upon and praising the Prophet (s.a.w.) must be done alone.  We have also seen before the hadits recorded by Imam Muslim (r.a.) in his Swahih and others that the Prophet (s.a.w.) encouraged dzikr of Allah (s.w.t.) and swalawat upon him in a group, and warned that any group which does not send swalawat upon him exposes themselves to the punishment of Allah (s.w.t.).

Allah (s.w.t.) Says:


All that We Relate to thee of the stories of the messengers with it We make firm thy heart ... (Surah Hud:120)

And He Says to Musa (a.s.):


… “Bring out thy people from the depths of darkness into light, and teach them of the Days of Allah.” ... (Surah Ibrahim:5)

In the first verse, Allah (s.w.t.) Emphasises the importance of regularly recounting the stories of the messengers and righteous people, so that our hearts may be kept firm through mention of them.  One of the principle functions of the Mawlid is to recount the events of his birth and life, and draw lessons from it, so this is another Qur’anic basis.

Furthermore, the second verse here goes further in supporting the regular recounting of the events of the “Days of Allah” and what is meant by the “Days of Allah”?  The scholars of tafsir state that it means those days in which Allah (s.w.t.) Granted them Great Blessings and in which occurred notable and great events, such as the day when Allah (s.w.t.) Saved the Bani Isra’il from the grip of the Pharaoh.  Those who explained the verse in this way include ibn ‘Abbas (r.a.), Mujahid (r.a.), Ubayy ibn Ka’b (r.a.), and Qatada (r.a.); and this explanation is the preferred one in the tafsir of Imam ath-Thabari (r.a.), Imam al-Qurthubi (r.a.), Hafizh ibn Katsir ad-Dimashqi (r.a.), Imam ibn Abi Hatim (r.a.), Imam al-Baydawi (r.a.), Imam Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi (r.a.), Imam as-Suyuthi (q.s.), Imam ash-Shawkani (r.a.), Imam al-Baghawi (r.a.), Imam al-Mawardi (r.a.), Imam ibn ‘Athiyyah (r.a.), Imam an-Nasafi (q.s.), Shaykh al-Khazin (q.s.), Sayyid Mahmud al-‘Aluwsi (r.a.), Imam al-Qushayri (r.a.), and many others.

Imam ash-Shawkani (r.a.) mentioned in his tafsir of this ayah, a hadits from the Messenger (s.a.w.) wherein he himself interprets it this way, which is recorded in the collections of Imam an-Nasa’i (r.a.), Imam Ahmad (r.a.) from ibn ‘Abbas (r.a.), and Imam Ahmad’s (r.a.) son, Imam ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmad (r.a.) in his Zawa’id al-Musnad, Imam ad-Daylami (r.a.) in Musnad al-Firdaws, Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in Shu’ab al Iman from Ubayy ibn Ka’b (r.a.), Imam ibn Jarir ath-Thabari (r.a.), Imam ibn Mundzir (r.a.), Imam ibn Abi Hatim (r.a.), Imam ibn Mardawayh (r.a.), Imam ‘Abd ar-Razzaq (r.a.), and Imam ‘Abdullah ibn Humayd (r.a.) in his Musnad.

Imam ‘Isa ibn Mani’ al-Himyari (q.s.) wrote about this verse, Surah Ibrahim:5, “The intended meaning behind it is to make regular mention of them and to recall the blessings Allah Graced them with, and to remember the guidance, light, wisdom, laws, counsels, and miracles they came with, by virtue of which hearts and intellects are turned towards the Favours of Allah upon His slaves.  By this, they will attend to the Rights of Allah upon them, in the hopes they will come to hope for His Mercy and fear His Punishment, and call Him in desire and dread.  Therefore, this verse includes in its meaning the events and lives of the messengers from the moment of their birth until their passing away from this world, all of which is considered Guidance by which Allah Makes the hearts firm, and enlightens the intellects, and uplifts the spirits, and polishes the insights, and purifies the emotions, and softens the hold of the rebellious self so that it is returned to the obedience of Allah and submersion in His love, and to remain constant in His Company and stick to His Presence, and become attached to His Contentment and escape from His Anger.  All of this and more are among the benefits of recalling and commemorating the blessings of Allah.  This is why it is recommended to invite people to this activity, to make them aware of and encourage them in following the object of the Mawlid.”

He further wrote, “Indeed, the longing of the souls after noble goals and sublime intentions and lofty stations occurs as a result of making regular mention and commemorating he who is the most perfect model and example.  For there is nothing that has a deeper and longer-lasting effect upon the soul than mentioning and commemorating the life-story of he whom people recognise and love, whose lofty image and sublime stature is firmly etched in their minds.  For when they hear news of him and listen to recountings of events related to him, in which the unsurpassed greatness of his life and acts and the inimitable eloquence of his words and speech is brought to light, then without doubt they will constantly press themselves towards imitating him and following him with unquenchable desire and great longing.  How much clear loss have the Muslims suffered when they dispensed with and abandoned the commemoration of their great leaders and models.”

He also said, “It is indeed strange that they neglected the commemoration of our noble Messenger (s.a.w.) while the Qur’an is replete with commemoration of the love of the great ones, and took great care concerning their lives, from the moment they were foetuses in their mothers’ wombs until Allah Took them to Himself.  Therefore, this is among the Qur’anic verses from which we can infer the desirability of commemorating his birth of the Messenger (s.a.w.).”

As an example of the previous point, Allah (s.w.t.) Says:


Said Jesus the son of Mary, “O Allah, our Lord!  Send us, from heaven, a table set (with viands), that there may be for us ― for the first and the last of us a solemn festival and a sign from Thee ...” (Surah al-Ma’idah:114)

In other words, the day of its descent would become an ‘Iyd which we and the succeeding generations to follow would commemorate.  By extension, the same principle would apply to the blessed event of our noble Prophet’s (s.a.w.) birth, with the exception that it should not be taken as a once-a-year event, but rather a regularly recurring one, not restricted to a particular time or place.

There is commemoration of the birthdays of some of the prophets and righteous servants in the Qur’an Itself.  As a few examples of many, Allah (s.w.t.) Recounts the events and details the blessings found in and lessons derived from the births of the following people.

For Yahya (a.s.):


There did Zakariya pray to his Lord saying, “O my Lord!  Grant unto me from Thee a progeny that is pure; for Thou art He that Heareth prayer!”  While he was standing in prayer in the chamber, the angels called unto him, “Allah doth Give thee Glad Tidings of Yahya, witnessing the truth of a Word from Allah and (be besides) noble, chaste, and a Prophet, ― of the (goodly) company of the righteous.”  He said, “O my Lord!  How shall I have a son, seeing I am very old, and my wife is barren?”  “Thus,” was the answer, “Doth Allah Accomplish what He Willeth.”  He said, “O my Lord!  Give me a Sign!”  “Thy Sign,” was the answer, “shall be that thou shalt speak to no man for three days but with signals.  Then celebrate the praises of thy Lord again and again and glorify Him in the evening and in the morning.” (Surah Ali ‘Imran:38-41) 


(This is) a recital of the Mercy of thy Lord to His Servant Zakariya.  Behold!  He cried to his Lord in secret, praying, “O my Lord!  Infirm indeed are my bones, and the hair of my head doth glisten with grey: but never am I unblest, O my Lord, in my prayer to Thee!  Now I fear (what) my relatives (and colleagues) (will do) after me: but my wife is barren: so, Give me an heir as from Thyself ― (One that) will (truly) represent me, and represent the posterity of Jacob; and Make him, O my Lord, one with whom Thou art Well-Pleased!”  (His prayer was Answered): “O Zakariya!  We Give thee good news of a son: his name shall be Yahya: on none by that name have We Conferred distinction before.”  He said, “O my Lord!  How shall I have a son, when my wife is barren and I have grown quite decrepit from old age?”  He Said, “So (it will be): thy Lord Saith, ‘That is Easy for Me: I did indeed Create thee before, when thou hadst been nothing!’”  (Zakariya) said, “O my Lord!  Give me a Sign.”  “Thy Sign”, was the answer, “shall be that thou shalt speak to no man for three nights, although thou art not dumb.”  So Zakariya came out to his people from his chamber: he told them by signs to celebrate Allah’s praises in the morning and in the evening.  (To his son Came the Command), “O Yahya!  Take hold of the Book with might”: and We Gave him wisdom even as a youth.  And pity (for all creatures) as from Us, and purity: he was devout.  And kind to his parents, and he was not overbearing or rebellious.  So, Peace on him the day he was born, the day that he dies, and the day that he will be raised up to life (again)! (Surah Maryam:2-15)

For ‘Isa (a.s.):


Behold!  The angels said, “O Mary!  Allah hath Chosen thee and Purified thee; ― Chosen thee above the women of all nations.  O Mary!  Worship thy Lord devoutly; prostrate thyself, and bow down (in prayer) with those who bow down.”  This is part of the tidings of the things unseen, which We Reveal unto thee (O Prophet!) by Inspiration; thou wast not with them when they cast lots with arrows, as to which of them should be charged with the care of Mary; nor wast thou with them when they disputed (the point).  Behold!  The angels said, “O Mary!  Allah Giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those nearest to Allah.  He shall speak to the people in childhood and in maturity and he shall be (of the company) of the righteous.”  She said: "O my Lord!  How shall I have a son when no man hath touched me?”  He Said, “Even so: Allah Createth what He Willeth; when He hath Decreed a Plan, He but Saith to it ‘Be’, and it is!  And Allah will Teach him the Book and Wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel.” (Surah Ali ‘Imran:42-48)


Relate in the Book (the story of) Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place in the East.  She placed a screen (to screen herself) from them: then We Sent to her Our angel, and he appeared before her as a man in all respects.  She said, “I seek Refuge from thee to (Allah) Most Gracious: (come not near) if thou dost fear Allah.”  He said, ‘Nay, I am only a messenger from thy Lord (to announce) to thee the gift of a holy son.”  She said, “How shall I have a son, seeing that no man has touched me, and I am not unchaste?”  He said, “So (it will be): thy Lord Saith ‘That is Easy for Me: and (We Wish) to Appoint him as a Sign unto men and a Mercy from Us’: it is a matter (so) Decreed.”  So, she conceived him, and she retired with him to a remote place.  And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm-tree: she cried (in her anguish), “Ah!  Would that I had died before this!  Would that I had been a thing forgotten and out of sight!”  But (a voice) cried to her from beneath the (palm-tree), “Grieve not!  For thy Lord hath Provided a rivulet beneath thee; and shake towards thyself the trunk of the palm-tree: it will let fall fresh ripe dates upon thee.  So, eat and drink and cool (thine) eye.  And if thou dost see any man say, ‘I have vowed a fast to (Allah) Most Gracious, and this day will I enter into no talk with any human being.’”  At length, she brought the (babe) to her people, carrying him (in her arms).  They said, “O Mary!  Truly an amazing thing hast thou brought!  O sister of Aaron!  Thy father was not a man of evil, nor thy mother a woman unchaste!”  But she pointed to the babe.  They said, “How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?”  He said, “I am indeed a servant of Allah: He hath Given me Revelation and Made me a prophet; and He hath Made me Blessed wheresoever I be, and hath Enjoined on me prayer and charity as long as I live; (He) hath Made me kind to my mother, and not overbearing or miserable; so Peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die and the day that I shall be Raised up to life (again)!”   Such (was) Jesus the son of Mary: (it is) a statement of truth, about which they (vainly) dispute. (Surah Maryam:16-34)

For Maryam (a.s.):


Allah did Choose Adam and Noah the family of Abraham, and the family of ‘Imran above all people.  Offspring, one of the other; and Allah Heareth and Knoweth all things.  Behold!  A woman of ‘Imran said, “O my Lord!  I do dedicate into Thee what is in my womb for Thy special service so accept this of me, for Thou Hearest and Knowest all things.”  When she was delivered, she said, “O my Lord!  Behold!  I am delivered of a female child!”  And Allah Knew Best what she brought forth, “And is not the male like the female.  I have named her Mary and I commend her and her offspring to Thy Protection from the Evil One, the Rejected.”  Right Graciously did her Lord Accept her: He Made her grow in purity and beauty; to the care of Zakariya was she assigned.  Every time that he entered (her) chamber to see her, he found her supplied with sustenance.  He said, “O Mary!  Whence (comes) this to you?”  She said, “From Allah: for Allah Provides sustenance to whom He Pleases, without measure.” (Surah Ali ‘Imran:33-37)

In addition, Allah (s.w.t.) Details how the Prophet ‘Isa ibn Maryam (a.s.) celebrated his own birthday when he said, “… and peace be upon me the day I was born ...” in Surah Maryam:33.  Is there not in all of this evidence for the permissibility of commemorating the blessing of the birth of our Prophet (s.a.w.), who is the best of Allah’s (s.w.t.) Creation?

The Prophet (s.a.w.) emphasised Monday as the day he was born.  Abu Qatadah al-Answari (r.a.) narrated that the Prophet (s.a.w.) was asked why he regularly fasted on Monday, and he answered, “That is the day that I was born and that is the day I received the prophecy.”  This means that the Prophet (s.a.w.) was expressing his gratitude for the day of his birth and commemorating it by fasting, which is a kind of worship.  This was recorded by Imam Muslim (r.a.) in Kitab asw-Swiyam, Imam Abu Dawud (r.a.), Imam an-Nasa’i (r.a.) in Sunan al-Kubra, Imam Ahmad (r.a.), Imam Hakim (r.a.), Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in his Sunan and Dala’il, Imam Abu Ya’la (r.a.), Imam ath-Thayalisi (r.a.) and others.  Similarly, Imam ibn Hibban (r.a.) and Imam ibn Khuzaymah (r.a.) in their respective Swahih collections both devoted a whole chapter to this topic and called it: “Mention of the desirability of the fast of Monday because on that day the Messenger (s.a.w.) was born and on that day the Revelation Descended.”

Expressing happiness and celebrating the Prophet (s.a.w.) on his birthday causes even unbelievers, by Allah’s (s.w.t.) Favour and Mercy, to gain some benefit.  For example, every Monday, Abu Lahab, in his grave, is released from punishment because he freed his handmaiden Tsuwaybah when she brought him the news of the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) birth.  This hadits is mentioned in Imam al-Bukhari’s (r.a.) Swahih in Kitab an-Nikah, in Imam ‘Abd ar-Razzaq’s (r.a.) Muswannaf, Imam al-Baghawi’s (r.a.) Sharh as-Sunnah, and Hafizh ibn Katsir ad-Dimashqi (r.a.) mentioned it in his books Swirath an-Nabi, Mawlid al-Nabi, and al-Bidayah.  The hafizh, Imam Shams ad-Din Muhammad ad-Dimashqi (r.a.) wrote on this the following verse Surah al-Lahab:1, in his book, Mawrid as-Sadi fi Mawlid al-Hadi, “If this, a kafir who was condemned to hell eternally with “Perish the hands”, is said to enjoy a respite every Monday because he rejoiced in Ahmad, what then do you think of the servant who, all his life, was happy with Ahmad, and died believing in Divine Unity?”


In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Perish the hands of the Father of Flame!  Perish he! (Surah al-Masad:1)

Some object to the Mawlid because according to them, it fosters the deification of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) due to the people over-exaggerating in praising him and invoking too many prayers upon him, and that this poses the danger of shirk.  However, the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) is known to have encouraged frequent invocations of blessing, swalawat, upon him, as is established in the following hadits:

Ubayy ibn Ka’b (r.a.) said, “O Messenger of Allah, I make much swalawat upon you as a personal habit.  How much of my daily devotions should I devote to you?”

The Prophet (s.a.w.) answered, “As much as you like.”

Ubayy (r.a.) asked, “A quarter?”

 The Prophet (s.a.w.) answered, “As you like, but if you add to that, it will be better for you.”

Ubayy (r.a.) then mentioned a third, then a half, then two thirds, and always the Prophet (s.a.w.) answered, “As you like, but if you add to that, it will be better for you.”

Finally, Ubayy (r.a.) said, “O Messenger of Allah, I want to devote my entire prayer to you.”

Whereupon the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, “Then you will be Freed from care and your sins will be Forgiven.”  Another version has: “Then Allah will Suffice you in the matter of your worldly life and your hereafter.”  This was recorded by Imam at-Tirmidzi (r.a.), Imam Hakim (r.a.) in his Swahih, Imam Ahmad (r.a.), Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) in his Mu’jam al-Kabir through Imam al-Haytsami (r.a.) and Imam al-Mundziri (r.a.), Imam ‘Abd ar-Razzaq (r.a.), Imam ibn Abi Shaybah (r.a.), Hafizh Diya’ al-Maqdisi (r.a.) in his Mukhtarah, Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in his Shu’ab al-Iman, Imam al-Bazzar (r.a.) in Zawa’id, Imam ar-Ruyani (r.a.), Imam ‘Abdullah ibn Humayd (r.a.), Imam ibn Shahin (r.a.), Qadhi Isma’il (r.a.) in his Fadhl asw-Swalah and others.  They all recorded this hadits as swahih.

Both Anas (r.a.) and ‘Ali (k.w.) said that every supplication is veiled, mahjub, until the one making it sends swalawat upon the Prophet (s.a.w.).  This was recorded with tsiqah narrators from Imam al-Mundziri’s (r.a.) Targhib and Imam al-Haytsami’s (r.a.) Majma’ by Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) in his Mu’jam al-Awsath, Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in his Shu’ab al-Iman, Imam ad-Daylami (r.a.) is his Musnad al-Firdaws, Shaykh Abu ash-Shaykh (r.a.), and others.

The Prophet (s.a.w.) also said, “The person most deserving of me on the Day of Rising is the one who sends the most swalawat upon me.”  This was recorded by Imam al-Bukhari (r.a.) in his Tarikh al-Kabir, Imam at-Tirmidzi (r.a.) in his Kitab asw-Swalah, Imam al-Bazzar (r.a.) in his Musnad, Imam Abu Ya’la (r.a.), Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) his Shu’ab al-Iman, Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) in his Mu’jam al-Kabir, and Imam ibn Hibban (r.a.).  Imam ibn ‘Adiyy (r.a.) recorded it in his Kamil from ibn Mas’ud (r.a.) as a hadits hasan, while Imam as-Suyuthi (q.s.) stated it is swahih in his Jami’ asw-Swaghir.  This is confirmed in Fath al-Bari.

The Prophet (s.a.w.) also said, “None of you will believe until I am more beloved to him than his parents, children, and all of mankind,” and “Whoever loves something, mentions it frequently.”  The former hadits was recorded by Imam al-Bukhari (r.a.), Imam Muslim (r.a.), Imam Ahmad (r.a.), Imam an-Nasa’i (r.a.), Imam ibn Majah (r.a.), Imam ad-Darimi (r.a.), Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in his Shu’ab al-Iman, Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) in his Mu’jam al-Awsath, Imam ‘Abdullah ibn Humayd (r.a.) and others.  The latter hadits was recorded by Imam ibn ad-Daylami in his Musnad al-Firdaws.  However, it is classified as dha’if by Imam as-Suyuthi (q.s.) in his Jami’ asw-Swaghir.  It was also recorded by Imam ibn Abi Dunya (r.a.) and Imam Ahmad (r.a.) in their Kitab az-Zuhd, Imam ibn Shahin (r.a.) in his Targhib, Imam Abu Nu’aym (r.a.), and Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in his Shu’ab al-Iman with slight differences in wording.

This means that the true believers love the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) more than any other human, and that because of this love, they mention and invoke him frequently, each time sending swalawat upon him.  The Prophet (s.a.w.) also said, “No Muslim sends swalawat upon me without the angels sending swalawat upon him in return, as long as he sends swalawat upon me.  So, let him decrease or increase as he wishes.”  Those who complain of people reciting “too much” swalawat upon the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) should reflect upon these ahadits.  This hadits was recorded by Imam Ahmad (r.a.), Imam ibn Majah (r.a.), Hafizh Diya’ al-Maqdisi (r.a.), Imam ibn Abi Shaybah (r.a.), Imam ‘Abd ar-Razzaq (r.a.), Imam al-Baghawi (r.a.), Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in his Shu’ab, Imam Abu Nu’aym (r.a.), Imam ibn al-Mubarak (r.a.) in his Kitab az-Zuhd, Qadhi Isma’il (r.a.) in his Fadhl asw-Swalah, Imam ‘Abdullah ibn Humayd (r.a.) and Imam ibn Ja’d (r.a.) in their respective Musnad, and it is swahih according to Imam as-Suyuthi (q.s.) in his Jami’ as-Swaghir, and hasan according to Imam al-Mundziri (r.a.) in his Targhib.

Imam al-Qasthalani (r.a.) said in his commentary on Swahih al-Bukhari, “In his book on Jana'iz, al-Bukhari named an entire chapter, ‘Dying on Monday.’  In it there is the hadits of ‘Aishah relating her father’s question, ‘On which day did the Prophet die?’

She replied, ‘Monday.’

He asked, ‘What day are we today?’

She replied, ‘O my father, this is Monday.’

Then he raised his hands and said, ‘I beg you, O Allah, to let me die on Monday in order to coincide with the Prophet’s day of passing.’”

Imam al-Qasthalani (r.a.) continued, “Why did Abu Bakr ask for his death to be on Monday?  So, that his death would coincide with the day of the Prophet’s passing, in order to receive the blessing of that day.  Does anyone object to Abu Bakr’s asking to pass away on that day for the sake of blessing?  Then why are people objecting to celebrating or emphasising the day of the Prophet’s birth in order to get blessing?”

One lady came to the Prophet (s.a.w.) when he was returning from one of his battles and she said, “Ya Rasulullah, I have made an oath that if Allah Sends you back safe, I would play this drum near you and sing for you.”

The Prophet (s.a.w.) said, “Fulfill your oath.”

One commentator wrote, “There is no doubt that the playing of a drum is a kind of entertainment, even though the Prophet (s.a.w.) ordered her to fulfill her oath.  He did that because her intention was to honour him for returning safely, and her intention was a good intention, not with the intention of a sin or of wasting time.  Therefore, if anyone celebrates the time of the birth of the Prophet in a good way, with a good intention, by reading sirah and praising him, it is accepted.”  This hadits is recorded by Imam Abu Dawud (s.a.w.), Imam at-Tirmidzi (s.a.w.), Imam Ahmad (s.a.w.), Imam ibn Hibban (s.a.w.), Imam al-Bayhaqi (s.a.w.) in his Sunan and Imam ath-Thabarani (s.a.w.) in his Mu’jam al-Awsath.

When the Prophet (s.a.w.) reached Madina, he saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Ashura.  He asked about that day and they told him that on that day, Allah (s.w.t.) had Saved their prophet, Musa (a.s.) and Drowned their enemy.  Therefore, they fast on that day to thank Allah (s.w.t.) for that favour.  The Prophet (s.a.w.) replied, “We have more right to Musa than you,” and he used to fast that day and the day preceding it.  This was recorded by Imam al-Bukhari (r.a.), Imam Muslim (r.a.), Imam Ahmad (r.a.) who also mentions that the ark of Nuh (a.s.) landed on Judi on that day, Imam al-Humaydi (r.a.), Imam ath-Thayalisi (r.a.), and Imam Abu Ya’la (r.a.) in their respective Musnad.  It was also mentioned by Imam ad-Darimi (r.a.), Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) in his Mu’jam al-Kabir and Mu’jam al-Awsath, Imam ibn Khuzaymah (r.a.), Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in his Sunan al-Kubra, Imam ibn Hibban (r.a.), Imam al-Baghawi (r.a.) and many others.  Similarly, Imam ibn Khuzaymah (r.a.) and Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) record that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, “‘Ashura is a day among the days of Allah.”

Similarly, the Prophet (s.a.w.) was ordered by Jibril (a.s.) during the Isra’ to commemorate the birth of ‘Isa (a.s.) by dismounting from the Buraq in Bethlehem and praying at the place where he was born, precisely for that reason and no other.  This is part of a longer hadits from Anas (r.a.), as recorded by Imam Nasa’i (r.a.) in his Kitab asw-Swalat, and from Shaddad ibn Aws (r.a.) by Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in Dala’il an-Nubuwwah, by Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) in his Mu’jam al-Kabir and Musnad ash-Shamiyyin, Imam al-Bazzar (r.a.) in his Zawa’id, and Imam ibn ‘Asakir (r.a.).  It was declared swahih by Imam al-Haytsami (r.a.) in his Majma’, Imam ibn Hajr (r.a.) in his Iswaba, Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) and Hafizh ibn Katsir ad-Dimashqi (r.a.) in his al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah.

Just as places can be blessed because of their connection to blessed people, times can, similarly, be blessed.  As an example of this, the Prophet (s.a.w.) declared Friday as a special day of ‘Iyd because, “it was the day in which Adam (a.s.) was Created.”  Therefore, Friday partly derives its blessings from the birthday of our common father Adam (a.s.).  The same principle applies to the day of Monday being blessed, because on it fell the birthday of our Prophet (s.a.w.).  This hadits was recorded by Imam al-Bukhari (r.a.) in his Tarikh al-Kabir, Imam Malik (r.a.), Imam Muslim (r.a.), Imam at-Tirmidzi (r.a.), Imam an-Nasa’i (r.a.), Imam Abu Dawud (r.a.), Imam Ahmad (r.a.), Imam ibn Sa’d (r.a.) in his Thabaqat, Imam ath-Thayalisi (r.a.), Imam Abu Ya’la (r.a.), Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in his Sunan al-Kubra and Dala’il, Imam ibn Khuzaymah (r.a.), Imam ibn Abi Shaybah (r.a.), Imam ibn Hibban (r.a.), Imam Hakim (r.a.) in his Mustadrak which declared it swahih, Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) in his Mu’jam al-Kabir and Mu’jam al-Awsath, Imam al-Bazzar (r.a.) in his Zawa’id, Imam Harits (r.a.) in his Zawa’id, Imam ‘Abdullah ibn Humayd (r.a.), Imam Abu Shaykh (r.a.) in his Kitab Adhamah, Imam ash-Shafi’i (r.a.) in his Musnad, Hakim at-Tirmidzi in his Nawadir al-Uswul, and Imam ad-Daylami (r.a.) in Musnad al-Firdaws.  There is also a mention in Imam as-Suyuthi’s (q.s.) Tafsir Durr al-Mantsur.

Imam ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalani (r.a.) wrote in his Fath al-Bari.in relation to this, that Imam ‘Abd ar-Razzaq (r.a.) recorded from Imam Muhammad ibn Sirin (r.a.) with a swahih chain of narrators that the answar of Madinah came together, before the Messenger (s.a.w.) came to them and before Surah al-Jumu’ah was Revealed, and they said, “The Jews have a special day in the week for them in which they gather, as do the Christians, so let us make a special day for ourselves in which we gather to invoke Allah and pray and show our gratitude to Him,” and so they chose the day of the Arabs, meaning, Friday, and As’ad ibn Zurarah (r.a.) led them in prayer that day.  Later on, Allah (s.w.t.) Revealed the verses of Jumu’ah.  Even though this hadits is mursal, missing a companion-link in its chain, it has authentic corroborating narrations, shawahid, which strengthen it, which are recorded by Imam Ahmad (r.a.), Imam Abu Dawud (r.a.), and Imam ibn Majah (r.a.) on the authority of Ka’b ibn Malik (r.a.), and was declared swahih by Imam ibn Khuzaymah (r.a.) and others.  This means that the answar chose the day of Friday through independent reasoning and it is said that the wisdom behind the cause of choosing Friday is that Adam (a.s.) was Created in that day, and that mankind was Created for worship, so it is most proper that this day be a day of special worship; and also that on this day Allah (s.w.t.) Completed the Creation of things, from which the human derives benefits, so it is most appropriate that gratitude be expressed on that Day.  Imam as-Suyuthi (q.s.) also mentioned it in his Tafsir Durr al-Mantsur on Surah al-Jumu’ah and said that it was also recorded by Imam ‘Abdullah ibn Humayd (r.a.) and Imam ibn Mundzir (r.a.).  The Prophet (s.a.w.) agreed to their gathering on this day, even though they did not wait for permission from him or an order.  From this incident, we also gain another indication of the desirability of commemorating the days in which great blessings occur.

Imam as-Suyuthi (q.s.) wrote, “I have derived the permissibility of Mawlid from another source of the sunnah, narrated by Anas, that the Prophet (s.a.w.) slaughtered an ‘aqiqah for himself after he received the prophecy, although it has been mentioned that his grandfather ‘Abd al-Muththalib did that on the seventh day after he was born, and the ‘aqiqah cannot be repeated.  Thus, the reason for the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) action is to give thanks to Allah for Sending him as a Mercy to the worlds, and to give honour to his ummah, in the same way that he used to pray on himself.  It is recommended for us, therefore, that we also show thanks for his birth by meeting with our brothers, by feeding people, and other such good works and rejoicing.”  This hadits confirms the aforementioned hadits of the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) emphasis on Monday as the day of his birthday and that of his prophethood.  This was recorded by Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in his Sunan al-Kubra, Shaykh ar-Ruyani (r.a.) in his Musnad, Imam ibn ‘Adiyy (r.a.), and Imam al-Haytsami (r.a.) said that Imam al-Bazzar (r.a.) in his Zawa’id and Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) narrated it, the latter with a swahih chain.  The chains of Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.), Shaykh ar-Ruyani (r.a.) and Imam al-Bazzar (r.a.) contain ibn Muharrar, who is very weak and abandoned as a narrator, according to Imam ibn Hajr (r.a.), Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) and others.  However, the hadits is related through other chains that do not include ibn Muharrar, which are recorded by Imam ath-Thahawi (r.a.) in Sharh Mushkil al-Atsar, Hafizh Diya’ al-Maqdisi (r.a.) in al-Ahadits al-Mukhtara which is a collection of mostly swahih ahadits, Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) in Mu’jam al-Awsath from Anas (r.a.), Imam ibn Hazm (r.a.) in al-Muhallah where he considers it swahih and Imam ibn Hajr (r.a.) in Fath al-Bari mentioned other chains recorded by Shaykh Abu ash-Shaykh (r.a.) through Imam ibn al-Mutsanna (r.a.) from Tsumama (r.a.) from Anas (r.a.), whom Imam al-Bukhari (r.a.) and others considered trustworthy.  Imam al-Bukhari (r.a.) in his Swahih narrated a number of ahadits with this very chain, meaning that this hadits of the ‘aqiqah is at least hasan and most probably swahih.  Therefore, Imam as-Suyuthi (q.s.) is correct in adducing it as one of the authentic proofs for the commemoration of the Mawlid.

Some of those who are against the commemoration of the Mawlid argue that the man who introduced it as it is celebrated today, Muzhaffar Abu Sa’id (r.a.), the king of Irbil, was an evil man and other unfounded claims.  We now consider the testimony of our trustworthy scholars concerning this man.

Imam adz-Dzahabi (r.a.) wrote in his Siyar A’alam an-Nubala’ about him, “He loved charity and built four hospices for the poor and sick.  He would forbid any reprehensible matter to enter into his country.  As for his celebration of the Noble Mawlid an-Nabawi, words are too poor to describe it.  The people used to come all the way from Iraq and Algeria to attend it.  Preachers would roam the field exhorting the people.  Great sums were spent (as charity).  He was modest, a lover of good, and a true Sunni who loved scholars of jurisprudence and scholars of ahadits, and was generous even to poets.  He was killed in battle according to what is reported.”

Hafizh ibn Katsir ad-Dimashqi (r.a.) wrote in his al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah, the following about him: “He used to celebrate the noble Mawlid in Rabi’ al-Awwal and organise huge festivities for it.  He was a wise king, brave, a fierce fighter, intelligent, learned, and just.  May Allah have Mercy on him and Ennoble his grave.  Shaykh Abu al-Khaththab ibn Dihya compiled for him a book on the Mawlid of the Prophet (s.a.w.) and named it at-Tanwir fi Mawlid al-Bashir an-Nadzir and the king rewarded him with 1,000 dananir for it.  His rule lasted until he died in the year 630 AH. as he was besieging the French in the city of ‘Akka after a glorious and blameless life.”

We should reflect upon the words of these trustworthy scholars, and see how their defense of King Muzaffar is a defense of the Mawlid itself.  May Allah (s.w.t.) Bless those who have no arrogance keeping them from accepting the truth when they see it.

This is Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah’s (r.a.) opinion about Mawlid from his Fatawa ibn Taymiyyah and his Iqtidha’ asw-Swirath al-Mustaqim, the section on “The Innovated Festivities of Time and Place”: “Also: what the people do, either as a competition with the Christians in their commemoration of the birth of ‘Isa (a.s.), or out of love and veneration of the Prophet (s.a.w.), and indeed Allah will Reward them for this act of love and sound inference.”  And: “Honouring the day of his birth and taking it as a date of celebration, as some people do, will confer upon them an immense reward, due to the soundness of their good intentions and their veneration of the Messenger (s.a.w.).”  However, the Muslims never commemorated his birth to compete with the Christians, so this claim is unfounded.

Other scholars who wrote in support of the Mawlid include, but are not limited to: Hafizh ibn Katsir ad-Dimashqi (r.a.), in his book Mawlid ar-Rasul Allah, as mentioned by Hafizh ibn Hajr (r.a.) in his Durar al-Kamina; Imam ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalani (r.a.) and Imam Jalal ad-Din as-Suyuthi (q.s.) and his shaykh, Hafizh al-Munawi (r.a.), as detailed in his Hawi li al-Fatawa; Imam ibn Hajr al-Haytsami (r.a.) in his Itmam an-Ni’mah ‘ala al-‘Alam bi Mawlid Sayyid Walad Adam.

The Shafi’i Mufti of Makkah, Imam Ahmad ibn Zayni ad-Dahlan (r.a.), in his book as-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah wa al-Atsar al-Muhammadiyyah, wrote, “To celebrate the Mawlid and to remember the Prophet (s.a.w.) is accepted by all the ‘ulama.”

Shaykh al-Islam, Imam Taqiy ad-Din as-Subki (r.a.) said, “When we celebrate the Prophet’s birthday, a great pleasure comes to our heart, and we feel something special.”

Imam ash-Shawkani (r.a.), in his book, al-Badr at-Tali’, said, “It is permissible to celebrate the Prophet’s birthday.”  Mulla ‘Ali Qari al-Hanafi (r.a.) held the same opinion in his book, al-Mawrid ar-Rawi fi al-Mawlid an-Nabawi.

Imam as-Sakhawi (r.a.), quoted in Sirah al-Halabiyyah, said, “The Mawlid was begun three centuries after the Prophet, and all Muslim nations celebrated it, and all ‘ulama accepted it, by worshipping Allah alone, by giving donations and by reading the Prophet’s sirah.”  He also wrote a book in defense of the Mawlid called al-Fakhr al-‘Uluwi fi al Mawlid an-Nabawi.

Imam ibn al-Jawzi (r.a.) wrote a booklet of poems and sirah to be read at mawlid celebrations.  It is entitled Mawlid al-‘Arus.  He was also quoted in Sirah al-Halabiyyah to have said that commemoration of the Mawlid brings about Divine Protection for that year.  Shaykh San’ani (r.a.) in his Subul as-Salam, defended the Mawlid.  As did Imam ibn al-Haj al-Maliki (r.a.) in his Madkhal.  Imam ibn Marzuq al-Maliki (r.a.), as quoted by Imam Ahmad Wansharisi (r.a.) in his Mi’yar Mu’arrab, stated that the night of Mawlid is greater than the Laylat al-Qadr.  This is also confirmed by a number of Hanafi and Shafi’i ‘ulama.  An example would be Imam ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) Hashiyah.  Imam ‘Abd al-Wahid ibn ‘Ashir al-Maliki (r.a.), author of Murshid Mu’in, said to his student, Shaykh ibn ‘Abbad ar-Rundi (r.a.), “This day is a day of joy and happiness, and it is not correct to fast during it, because it is a day of celebration.”  The Maliki madzhab states it is makruh to fast on the day of the Mawlid.

Imam ‘Ali al-Halabi (r.a.) in his Sirah al-Halabiyyah, where he also quoted other scholars, also defended the Mawlid.  Imam Shihab ad-Din al-Qasthalani al-Maliki (r.a.), in his Mawahib Ladunniyyah did likewise.  As did Imam Shams ad-Din al-Jazri (r.a.), in his ‘Urf at-Ta’rif bi al-Mawlid ash-Sharif, Imam ibn Dihya al-Maliki (r.a.), in his Tanwir fi Mawlid al-Bashir an-Nadzir, Hafizh ibn Naswir ad-Din ad-Dimashqi, (r.a.) in his al-Mawlid as-Sadi fi Mawlid al-Hadi, Hafizh al-‘Iraqi (r.a.), in his al-Mawrid al-Haniyy fi’ al-Mawlid as-Saniyy (r.a.) and Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Abidin al-Hanafi (r.a.) in his Sharh Mawlid ibn Hajr.

Imam Jalal ad-Din as-Suyuthi (q.s.) said in Hawi li al-Fatawi, “The Shaykh al-Islam and hadits master of his time, Ahmad ibn Hajr (al-‘Asqalani) was asked about the practice of commemorating the birth of the Prophet, and gave the following written reply: ‘As for the origin of the practice of commemorating the Prophet’s birth, it is an innovation that has not been conveyed to us from any of the pious early Muslims of the first three centuries, despite which it has included both features that are praiseworthy and features that are not.  If one takes care to include in such a commemoration only things that are praiseworthy and avoids those that are otherwise, it is a praiseworthy innovation, while if one does not, it is not.  An authentic primary textual basis from which its legal validity is inferable has occurred to me, namely the authentic hadits in the collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim that the Prophet came to Madina and found the Jews fasting on the tenth of Muharram (‘Ashura), so he asked them about it and they replied: ‘It is the day on which Allah Drowned Pharaoh and Rescued Moses, so we fast in it to thanks to Allah Most high,’ which indicates the validity of giving thanks to Allah for the Blessings He has Bestowed on a particular day in Providing a benefit, or Averting an affliction, repeating one’s thanks on the anniversary of that day every year, giving thanks to Allah Taking any of various forms of worship such as prostration, fasting, charity or reciting the Qur’an...  And what blessing is greater than the birth of the Prophet (s.a.w.) – the Prophet of Mercy – on this day?’”

The Maliki faqih, Imam Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Wansharisi (r.a.) wrote in Mi’yar Mu’arrab, “The actions to undertake during this night (of the Mawlid) include invoking abundant swalawat on the Prophet (s.a.w.), reviving his sunnah, aiding and helping and honouring his descendants, increasing one’s charity and good works, giving aid to and easing the hardship of those in need and distress, and so on, which are superior than some other invented acts.”

It is a well recorded fact that the swahabah did commemorate his birthday by fasting on Monday, like the Prophet (s.a.w.) himself did when he told them he fasted on Mondays because it was the day he was born.  They also composed and recited poetry in praise of the Prophet (s.a.w.).  Examples of the companions who composed and recited poetry for the honour of the Prophet (s.a.w.) include Ka’b ibn Zubayr (r.a.), ‘Abdullah ibn Rawahah (r.a.), Hasan ibn Tsabit (r.a.), Qurra’ ibn Hubayr (r.a.) and many others.  Due to this recital, the Prophet (s.a.w.) would reward them greatly.  This was narrated by the compilers of sirah, such as Shaykh ibn Sayyid an-Naas (r.a.) in his Minah al-Madz, who listed the names of over 180 companions who composed praise-poetry for him.  Anyone who claims otherwise, that the swahabah did not commemorate his day of birth but rather ignored it, will have to answer before them on the Day of Judgment for his claims.

The uncle of the Prophet (s.a.w.), ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muththalib (r.a.) said, “And then, when you were born, a light rose over the earth until it illuminated the horizon with its radiance.  We are in that illumination and that original light and those paths of guidance and thanks to them we pierce through.”  The light mentioned by ‘Abbas (r.a.) is confirmed by the Prophet (s.a.w.) himself in the famous narration describing his own birth.

‘Irbad ibn Sariyah (r.a.) and Abu Umamah (r.a.) said that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, “The night I was delivered, my mother saw a light that lit the castles of Damascus so that she could see them.”  Imam ibn Sayyid an-Naas (r.a.) narrated the hadits of ‘Abbas (r.a.) with his isnad through Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) and Imam al-Bazzar (r.a.) in Minah al-Madz.  Hafizh ibn Katsir ad-Dimashqi (r.a.) in as-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah and Mulla `Ali al-Qari (r.a.) in his Sharh ash-Shifa’ say it is narrated by Shaykh Abu Bakr ash-Shafi`i (r.a.) and Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.), and cited by Shaykh ibn `Abd al-Barr (r.a.) in al-Isti`ab and Shaykh ibn al-Qayyim (r.a.) in Zad al-Ma`ad.

Shaykh ibn Hisham (r.a.), in the last lines of his Sirah, related that the poet of the Prophet (s.a.w.), Hasan ibn Tsabit (r.a.) said. “By Allah, no woman has conceived and given birth to one like the Messenger, the Prophet and Guide of his people.  Nor has Allah created among his creatures one more faithful to his sojourner or his promise than he who was the source of our light.”  This is clearly commemoration of his birth set in poetry.  Finally, part of the funeral eulogy Hasan ibn Tsabit (r.a.) recited for the Prophet (s.a.w.) states:

“I say, and none can find fault with me
But one lost to all sense and kept far.
My love shall never cease to praise him.
It may be for so doing I shall be forever in Paradise
With the Chosen One for whose support in that I hope
And to attain to that day I devote all my efforts.”

As for the hollow argument that Mawlid celebrations should be banned because of some unlawful activities that take place in some of them, then one should similarly forbid weddings celebrations, ‘Iyd al-Fithr celebrations, ‘Iyd al-Adhha celebrations, and other similar ones because people perform unlawful activities in these as well.

From all evidences produced above, no one can forbid the commemoration of his birth in the Mawlid Sharif after Allah (s.w.t.) has Commanded us to rejoice in His Bounties and Mercies, and the Prophet (s.a.w.) is the Greatest Mercy from Allah (s.w.t.) to us; the Prophet (s.a.w.) himself commemorated his own day of birth by fasting on every Monday, and his companions also fasting on Monday for the same reason; his companions composing poetry specifically for the occasion of his birth and in praise of him; and the scholars of the Ahl as-Sunnah supported the Mawlid, participated in it and composed books about it, finding nothing reprehensible about it.

We should now clearly understand why the commemoration of the birthday of the Prophet (s.a.w,) is supported by the Qur’an, by the sunnah, and by the majority consensus of the scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah.  The Prophet (s.a.w.) has told us that, “this ummah will never come together upon misguidance, and the Support of Allah is with the gathering.”  Therefore, the commemoration of the birthday of the Prophet (s.a.w.) is not only allowed but recommended in Islam.  The hadits above was recorded by Imam ibn Majah (r.a.) in his Swahih from Imam as-Suyuthi’s (r.a.) Jami’ asw-Swaghir, Imam at-Tirmidzi (r.a.) in his Kitab Fitan, Imam Abu Dawud (r.a.), Imam an-Nasa’i (r.a.) in his Sunan al-Kubra, Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in Asma’ wa Swifat where it was declared swahih and Shu’ab al-Iman, Imam Abu Nu’aym (r.a.) in his Hilya’, Imam Hakim (r.a.) who declared it swahih), Imam ‘Abdullah ibn Humayd (r.a.) in his Musnad, Imam Ahmad (r.a.) in his Musnad, Imam ad-Darimi (r.a.) who declared it dha’if, Hafizh Diya’ al-Maqdisi (r.a.), Shaykh al-Quda’i (r.a.), Imam Daraqutni (r.a.) in his Sunan, Imam ibn Abi ‘Asim (r.a.) in his Kitab as-Sunnah and Imam ibn Abi Shaybah (r.a.).  Imam ath-Thabarani (r.a.) recorded it in his Mu’jam al-Kabir from Imam al-Haytsami’s (r.a.) Majma’ and declared is swahih and in his Mu’jam al-Awsath.  And there were others.  And it is a well-known and authenticated tradition.


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