Tuesday, 29 May 2012

Short Biography of Khwaja Mu'in ad-Din Hasan Jisty (q.s.)

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

Khwaja Mu’in ad-Din Jisty (q.s.) was born in Sistan, East Persia, also known as Sijistan, around 533 AH, 1138/39 CE, to a well-respected family.  He was a saint of the Indian subcontinent.  He introduced and established the Jisty order in South Asia and significantly contributed to the spreading of Islam there.

He was blessed with direct lineage to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) through his father, Khwaja Ghayas ad-Din Hasan (r.a.), who was a direct descendant of Husayn ibn ‘Ali (r.a.).  His family lineage is as follows: Khwaja Mu’in ad-Din Jisty (q.s.), son of Khwaja Ghayas ad-Din Hasan (r.a.), son of Sayyid Ahmad Hasan (r.a.), son of Sayyid Hasan Ahmad (r.a.), son of Sayyid Najm ad-Din Thahir (r.a.), son of Khwaja ‘Abd al-‘Aziz Husayn (r.a.), son of Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi (q.s.), son of Imam Hasan al-‘Askari (q.s.), son of Imam Musa ibn ‘Ali (q.s.), son of Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi (q.s.), son of Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (q.s.), son of Imam Ali ibn Musa ar-Ridha (q.s.), son of Imam Musa Kazhim (q.s.), son of Imam Muhammad Ja’far asw-Swadiq (q.s), son of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (q.s.), son of Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin (q.s.), son of Husayn ibn ‘Ali (r.a.), son of ‘Ali (k.w.), son-in-law of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.).  His father, an accomplished man, was well-educated and trained, and a great Sufi of his time.  His piety and scholarship won him widespread respect and regard, and was held in high esteem by the Sufis of Khurasan.

Khwaja Mu’in ad-Din Jisty (q.s.) was also blessed with direct lineage to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) through his mother, Umm al-Wara’ (r.a.), who was a descendant of Hasan ibn ‘Ali (r.a.).  His great grandfather, Khwaja Sayyid Ahmad Husayn (r.a.), had migrated from Samarra in Iraq and eventually settled in Sanjar, within the region of Sistan.  He was also closely related to al-Ghawts al-A’azham, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (q.s.).  It is also said that he had two brothers.

Khwaja Mu’in ad-Din Jisty (q.s.) was born specifically in Sanjar, within the region of Sistan in modern-day Iran.  Another source says he was born in Isfahan.  At the time of his birth, Sistan and its surrounding lands were experiencing unprecedented bloodshed and plunder at the hands of Tatars, and other rebels.  These invaders had taken advantage of the weak government of Sultan Ahmad Sanjar.

Due to the upheaval, Khwaja Ghayas ad-Din Hasan (r.a.) decided to leave Sistan for a safer place.  They migrated to Khurasan, then a great hub of intellectual and economic activity and was home to learned ‘ulama and reputed Sufis.  There were rich gardens and canals along with flourishing agricultural fields.  Khwaja Ghayas ad-Din Hasan (r.a.) settled down in the vicinity where he bought an orchard along with a windmill.  Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) was brought up in Khurasan and received his early education at home.  By the time he was nine years old, he had committed the Holy Qur’an to memory.  Subsequently, he was admitted to a maktab, where he concentrated primarily on the ahadits and fiqh, and completed his education very early.  He was about fifteen years old when his father passed away in 544 AH.  He was heart-broken.  Prior to his father’s death, the Tatars had entered Khurasan and ransacked the province.  Hardly a year had passed since the death of his father, when the Tartars once more pillaged Khurasan.

It is said that one day, between the months of Sha’ban and Dzu al-Hijjah, when Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) was working in his orchard, a pious dervish and majdzub, Shaykh Ibrahim al-Qandusi (q.s.), came and took his seat under the shade of a tree.  When Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) saw him, he brought a bunch of grapes and presented it to his guest.  The visitor ate the grapes and was delighted.  He then took something out of his bag, chewed it, then offered it to his young host.  Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) ate it without any hesitation, and at once the light of wisdom and knowledge dawned upon him.  Immediately he disposed of all of his worldly belongings and distributed the money amongst the poor.  Having broken all the ties with worldly affairs, he set off for Samarkand and Bukhara, then the great centres of learning for religious education and knowledge.  After the death of his father, he had inherited a grindstone and the orchard, which constituted his source of income. He sold his grindstone and the orchard and distributed the proceeds of these amongst the needy and the indigent.

Baghdad, Samarkand, and Bukhara were then celebrated centres of Islamic learning.  From Khurasan, he proceeded to Samarkand and then to Bukhara, where he pursued higher studies.  He stayed there for about five years, from 544 AH / 1150 CE up to 550 AH / 1155 CE, continuing his education up to the age of twenty.  He counted among his teachers the two outstanding scholars of his time, namely, Mawlana Husam ad-Din al-Bukhari (r.a.) and Mawlana Sharaf ad-Din (r.a.).

When Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) had acquired sufficient knowledge, he travelled widely in search of a murshid.  He reached Iraq in 551 AH / 1156 CE where he met the renowned saint, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (q.s.) in Baghdad for the first time.  On meeting Khwaja Jisty (q.s.), Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (q.s.) prophesied, “This young man will be a great figure of his time.  He will be a source of inspiration and a centre of devotion and the focus of affection of myriads of people.”

Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) left Iraq for Arabia, and from there he proceeded to Harun in Iran.  In Harun, he had the unique privilege of meeting the famous saint, Khwaja ‘Utsman al-Haruni (q.s.), who accepted him as his disciple.  He spent two and a half years in the service of Khwaja ‘Utsman al-Haruni (q.s.), and eventually won the approval of his murshid.  He was given the permission to accept disciples himself and was appointed a caliph.

He left Harun for Baghdad, where he met Shaykh Abu Najib as-Suhrawardi (q.s.).  In 555 AH / 1160 CE, he travelled to Syria where he met a Shaykh Ahad Mahmud al-Wahidi al-Ghaznawi (q.s.).  He then proceeded to Kerman, and from there he returned to Baghdad, and then proceeded to Hamdan.  On his way to India, he visited Tabriz, Astarabad, Bukhara, Kharqan, Samarkand, Memna, and Herat.  He finally reached Multan on the tenth of Muharram of 561 AH / 1165 CE.  He then left Multan for Lahore where he spent time at the tomb of Imam ‘Ali al-Hujwiri (q.s.), better known as Data Ghanj Bakhsh.  On his return journey, he visited Ghazni, Balkh, Astarabad, and Rey.  On reaching Baghdad, he offered his respect to his murshid, Khwaja ‘Utsman al-Haruni (q.s.), who was then in Baghdad.

Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) himself described the details of his being initiated as a murid a second time in the following words: “I, Mu’in ad-Din Hasan of Sanjar, well-wisher of all the faithful, had the honour of meeting His Holiness, Khwaja ‘Utsman al-Haruni in the mosque of Khwaja Junayd in Baghdad.  His Holiness was surrounded by inspired dervishes.  When this humble being bowed low in due deference, my murshid, Khwaja ‘Utsman al-Haruni asked me to offer two genuflections, which I did.

Then his holiness asked me to sit with my face towards the Ka’bah.  He asked me, next, to recite Surah al-Baqarah.  I did as I was asked.  Further, his holiness commanded me to recite benedictions to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) twenty-one times.  I obeyed.  Then His Holiness stood up and, holding my hand in his, lifted his face towards the sky and said to me, ‘Come, let me cause you to reach God.’

Subsequently, taking out a miqraz, turned it around on the head of this humble being and placed on my head the four-edged cap and bestowed on me the robe.  Then he asked me to sit. I sat.  He addressed me thus: ‘It is the custom with us that a new entrant has to go through asceticism for one day and one night.  You should complete it in this one day and night.’  I obeyed. Next day, when I attended upon him, his holiness asked me to sit down and recite Surah al-Ikhlasw four thousand times.  I did that.

He asked me, next, to look towards the sky.  I did.  His holiness asked me, ‘How far do you see?’

I replied, ‘Up to the Great Throne.’

Next, he asked me to look towards the ground.  I did.  He asked me, ‘How far do you see?’

I replied, ‘Up to the antipodes.’

Next, he asked me to recite Surah al-Ikhlasw, again, a thousand times.  I did.  He asked me to look towards the sky again.  I did.  He asked me, ‘How far do you see now?’

I replied, ‘Up to the Great Hidden.’

He asked me next to close my eyes.  I did.  He asked me to open my eyes.  I did.  Then, showing his two fingers, he asked me, ‘What do you see therein?’

I replied, ‘Eighteen thousand worlds.’

Later, pointing towards a brick ahead, he asked me to pick it up.  When I did, I found a handful of dananir therein.  He said to me, ‘Go and distribute them amongst the needy and the poor.’  I complied.  When I went to him subsequently, he said to me, ‘Live in our company for some time.’

I replied, ‘I am at your service, master.’”

Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) accompanied his murshid wherever he went.  They left Baghdad for Makkah, and on their way, they stayed for some time in Fallujah. About the visit to Makkah, Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) himself wrote, “Having reached Makkah, we were honoured by the glorious vision of the Ka’bah and by going around it.  My murshid here, too, took my hand in his and entrusted it to God Almighty.  He prayed for my humble self in Ka’bah.  A voice was heard to the effect, ‘We have accepted Mu’in ad-Din.’

Then we reached Madina.  We offered our respects at the Court of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.).  My murshid said to me, ‘Make your respectful salaam.’  I offered my reverential salaam.

A voice came out saying, ‘Peace be on you also, O Head of the Pious of the Earth and the Sea.’

On hearing this, my murshid said to me, ‘Now, indeed you have reached perfection.’”

Leaving Madina, they stopped in Osh, Badakhshan, and Bukhara on their way to Baghdad.  After staying in Baghdad for some time, Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) once again accompanied his murshid on his tours and travels, visiting Osh, Sijistan, and Damascus.  Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) met Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (q.s.) in Gail, a second time in 581 AH /1185 CE and stayed with him for fifty-seven days.

After having served his murshid on tours and travels for twenty years, Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) was separated from him in Baghdad, when he was fifty-two years of age.  On this occasion, Khwaja ‘Utsman al-Haruni (q.s.) appointed him as his successor, and conveyed to him the holy relics of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.).

Of this, Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) himself said, “My murshid gave me the stick that was placed before him and then honoured me by confiding to me the robe, sandals, stick and the prayer carpet.  Then addressing me said thus, ‘These holy relics are the sacred possessions of our spiritual ancestors, which we have received from the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) and I have given them to you.  You should keep them with you, as we have done.  Whomsoever you may find a real seeker, entrust them to him.  Do not hold any hope from the people.  Live far from the people and aloof from the public and do not demand or ask anything from anybody.’

Having said these words, my murshid embraced me and kissed my head and eyes, and said, ‘I have entrusted you to God.’  Then he went into trance and I departed.”

Khwaja Jisty’s (q.s.) silsilah is traced back to the Beloved Prophet (s.a.w.) as follows: Khwaja Mu’in ad-Din Hasan Jisty (q.s.), disciple of Khwaja ‘Utsman al-Haruni (q.s.), disciple of Haji Sharif Zindani (q.s.), disciple of Khwaja Quthb ad-Din Madad Jisty (q.s.), disciple of Khwaja Naswir ad-Din Abu Yusuf Jisty (q.s.), disciple of Khwaja Abu Muhammad Jisty (q.s.), disciple of Khwaja Abu Ahmad Abdal Jisty (q.s.), disciple of Khwaja Abu Ishaq Shami Jisty (q.s.), disciple of Shaykh Mumshad ‘Uluwi Diynwari (q.s.), disciple of Khwaja Amin ad-Din Habirah (q.s.), disciple of Khwaja Hudzayfah Marashi (q.s.), disciple of Shaykh Ibrahim Adham al-Balkhi (q.s.), disciple of Shaykh Fudhayl ibn ‘Iyadh (q.s.), disciple of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Wahid ibn Zayd (q.s.), disciple of Shaykh Hasan al-Baswri (q.s.), disciple of ‘Ali ibn Abi Thalib (k.w.), the son-in-law of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.).

After receiving the robe of caliphate from his murshid, Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) travelled again.  He first reached Osh and then moved on to Isfahan where he met Shaykh Mahmud al-Isfahani (q.s.).  He gave the clothes that he was wearing to Khwaja Quthb ad-Din Bakhtiyar Khaki (q.s.), implying that he had accepted him as his murid.  Thereafter, Khwaja Quthb ad-Din Bakhtiyar (q.s.) accompanied him on his travels from the year 583 AH /1187 CE.  Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) left Isfahan for Makkah the same year.

One day, when he was absorbed in prayers in the Ka’bah, he heard a voice saying, “O, Mu’in ad-Din!  We are Greatly Pleased with you.  You are Granted Salvation.  Ask for anything you may like, so that We may Grant that to you.”

He respectfully replied, “O Great Lord!  Grant Salvation to the followers and disciples of Mu’in ad-Din.”

He received the Reply, “O, Mu’in ad-Din!  You are our Accepted.  I will Give Salvation to your followers and disciples and also to those who may enter your fold until the Day of Resurrection.”

After paying respects at the Ka’bah, and performing the hajj, he reached Madina and devoted himself to prayers in the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) mosque.  During his stay, he received a mandate from the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.), “O, Mu’in ad-Din!  You are a helper of my religion.  I entrust to you the country of Hind.  There prevails darkness.  Proceed to Ajmer and spread there the Gospel of Truth.”

In compliance with this command, Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) left Madina for India.  He continued his journey, passing through Isfahan, Bukhara, Herat, Lahore and Delhi, meeting several prominent Sufis of the period.  He arrived at the barren and desolate land of Rajputana, now known as Rajasthan.  On his way to India, he enrolled large numbers of people into his fold and blessed thousands of others with his spirituality.  Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) arrived in Ajmer at the age of 52 years, around 587 AH, 1190 CE.

At that time, Ajmer was ruled by Prithvi Raj Chauhan, the renowned Rajput king.  In his court, he had a large number of powerful magicians with Ajai Pal as their leader.  Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) stayed on a hill close to Ana Sagar Lake, now known as the Chillah Khwaja Sahib.  Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) wanted to stay at the site where the Awliya’ mosque is now situated but the servants of Prithvi Raj Chauhan did not allow him to do so on the pretext that the camels of Prithvi Raj Chauhan usually sat there.  Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) thereupon countered, “If the camels sit there, let them sit.”  He then stayed on a Hill close to Ana Sagar Lake and occupied the site now known as Chillah Khwaja Sahib.  The camels returned to their usual place and sat there as usual, but once they sat, they were unable to stand up again.  The Raja was informed.  All the camel-drivers tendered an unconditional apology.  Khwaja Jisty (q.s.), accepting the apology said: “Well, go.  The camels now stand.” When they returned, they saw the camels were standing.

When news spread that a very pious dervish had come to Ajmer, people began to flock to him in increasing numbers.  Whoever came to him, received the kindest treatment and blessings.  People were so much inspired by his divine teachings and simplicity that they began to embrace Islam.  Many became his disciples.  Even Ajai Pal submitted himself to the Khwaja Jisty (q.s.), giving up all his magic to became his disciple.

Meanwhile, Shahab ad-Din Ghawri again attacked India.  In 1192 CE, in the 2nd Battle of Tarain, he defeated Prithvi Raj.  When Shahab ad-Din Ghawri came to know of the presence of Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) at Ajmer, he personally came to see him.

Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) left Ajmer for some time and returned again in 588 AH / 1191 CE.  He left for Baghdad in 598 AH /1200 CE, and on reaching Balkh, he accepted Mawlana Ziya’ ad-Din (q.s.) as his murid.  He visited Ajmer a third time in 602 AH / 1206 CE and once again in 610 AH / 1213 CE.

He visited Delhi twice during the reign of Sultan Shams ad-Din Iltutmish.  He reached Delhi in 611AH / 1214 CE and stayed in the khanqah of Khwaja Quthb ad-Din Bakhtiyar Khaki (q.s.), and during his stay, he conferred a robe on to Shaykh Baba Farid ad-Din Ghanj Shakar (q.s.).  When his murshid, Khwaja ‘Utsman al-Haruni (q.s.), paid a visit to Delhi, the renowned poet of Shiraz, Shaykh Sa’adi ash-Shirazi (q.s.) came to Delhi at that time and had the privilege of meeting both saints.

Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) sent his disciples and successors to different part of the land.  A few of his prominent successors include Khwaja Quthb ad-Din Bakhtiyar Khaki (q.s.), Shaykh Farid ad-Din Ghanj al-Ahakar (q.s.), Shaykh Nizham ad-Din Awliya’ (q.s.) and Shaykh Naswir ad-Din Shiragh ad-Dalhi (q.s.).

Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) married at an advanced age.  He married twice.  When he had settled down in Ajmer, Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) had a dream in which the Prophet (s.a.w.) appeared in 590 AH / 1194 CE.  The Prophet (s.a.w.) said, “O Mu’in ad-Din, you are a great preceptor of our religion.  You should not depart from our sunnah,” meaning marriage.  He married Shaykha Ummatullah (q.s.) and they had three children, Khwaja Fakhr ad-Din (q.s.), Khwaja Husam ad-Din (r.a.) and Sayyidah Hafizhah Jamal (r.a.)  His second marriage was with Sayyidah Asmat (r.a.), daughter of Sayyid Wajih ad-Din Mashhadi (r.a.), who was the commissioner of Ajmer in 620 AH / 1223 CE.  The marriage resulted in the birth of Khwaja Zia ad-Din Abu Sa’id (r.a.).

Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) passed away on the 6th of Rajab 633 AH, 16th March, 1236, at the age of 97.  He was buried in the same cell which was the centre for his worship throughout his stay at Ajmer.  Today, his tomb is popularly known as Dargah ash-Sharif.  People of all walks of life and faiths, from all over the world, irrespective of their caste, creed and belief; visit this shrine.

Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) simple teachings brought the message of universal love and peace.  He became popularly known as Gharib Nawaz, meaning ‘the friend of the poor’.  This was later reinforced by succeeding Jisty Sufis.  The teachings of Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) have been recorded in several books of taswawwuf.  The essence of his teachings are that the true wali is one who has these three qualities: affectionate like the sun because when the sun rises, it is beneficial to all irrespective of what they are; generous like an ocean because we all get its bounties without discrimination; and hospitality like the earth because are raised and cradled in its lap, and it is always spread below our feet.  The noblest character is possessed by one who is bountiful in poverty; content in hunger, cheerful in grief, and friendly in hostility.  The surest way to ward off the eternal punishment of Hell is: to feed the hungry; to redress the aggrieved; and to help the distressed.

He is addressed by various titles in Arabic, Persian, Hindi Urdu and other languages, including Quthb al-Mashaykh al-Barra wa al-Bahr, Pole of the Masters of the Land and the Sea; Habibullah, Beloved of God; ‘Atha ar-Rasul, Gift of the Prophet; Khwaja al-Ajmir, the Master of Ajmer; Khwaja-e-Buzurk, Great Master; Wali al-Hind, Saint of India: Sulthan al-Hind, Spiritual Sovereign of India; Na’ib ar-Rasul fi al-Hind; Deputy of the Prophet in India; Aftab-e-Jahan, Sun of the World; Panah-e-Bekasan, Shelter of the Helpless; and Dalil al-‘Arifin, Proof of the Gnostics.  His thariqa’ is better known as the Chisty Order

Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) was very fond of spiritual music and fell into in a state of rapture when listening to it.  He kept his eyes closed when lost in contemplation, but opened them at prayer time.  Fear of God would cause him to tremble and weep and the dread of the last resting place, the grave, also dominated his thoughts.  Sometimes he felt in an elevated mood and was then so much absorbed and lost in meditation that he was quite unmindful of what was going on around him.  At other times, he was consumed by a pensive mood, and then he would close the door of his tenement in order to devote himself to contemplation.  He had a forgiving nature and showed love, regard, and respect to all, irrespective of caste, creed, or religion.  He was cosmopolitan in outlook, and a man of generous disposition, taking pleasure in helping the poor and the needy.  He was renowned for his hospitality and entertained the people.  Myriads of people of the city, with no ostensible means of subsistence, depended upon his charity.  He himself ate very little, fasting throughout the year, and wore patched clothes.  He would read the Qur’an twice daily.  He took no rest or respite for seventy long years and was very particular about his ablutions.

He took to the path of renunciation and self-abnegation.  He said, “Taswawwuf is a name and not a custom.”  What it means is that by merely being conversant with taswawwuf, mere study, did not make one a Sufi.  It is the inner life that marks one out as a gnostic.  A gnostic must have an exact understanding of Divine Knowledge.  He should surrender his will to the Will of God.  He should be kind, hospitable, and courteous, devoid of any trace of haughtiness or arrogance or superiority.  He should be content, meek and gentle, reposing his utmost trust in God.  The ambition to win disciples and to win applause or fame is foolish and vain.  On the contrary, the essential ambition should be to be nearer to the Friend and to be accepted by the Friend.

He said that a murid must submit his whole self and will to his murshid.  He observed, “The murid should, by sincerely following his spiritual guide, try to reach the place where the spiritual guide himself becomes the comb of his disciple.  A murid then should have, as his motto, service, love of, obedience to, and faith in his murshid in order to attain perfection.”

According to Khwaja Jisty (q.s.), “The path of love is such, that he who treads on it, loses his name and identity.  Love is all-embracing and all-pervading: the lover's heart is a fireplace of love.  Whatever comes in it is burnt and becomes annihilated.  There is no fire greater in intensity than the fire of love.  The sign of true love is manifested in obedience to and the fear of the Friend.”

As regards the repentance of lovers, he said that this is of three kinds: firstly, it is due to shame; secondly, to avoid sin; and thirdly to purify themselves by purging cruelty and enmity from within themselves.”  He also said, “Genuine love rules out the idea of treating the Friend with reserve.  The springs of love are in God and not in us.  Hence, love is Divine.”

He emphasised the importance of prayer and said that it is a great necessity for the development of the soul.  He did not restrict ‘prayer’ in its implications, expressions, and meaning, giving a broad connotation to the word.  According to him, prayer consists of selfless service, sympathy, and empathy.  Thus, helping the weak, the aggrieved, the needy, to feed the hungry, and to have the captive freed all constitute prayers.

He said that to see six things constitutes prayer for the gnostic: to see one’s parents in the morning and greet them with salaam; to see one's own children with love and affection; to see the Holy Qur’an; to see the face of the learned with respect; to see the gates of Ka’bah; and to look towards the face of one’s own murshid and to devote oneself to his service.  According to him, fear, respect, and modesty are the three things that go to make one enlightened.  The perfection of the gnostic depends upon the loss of the self.  A gnostic is said to be perfect only when all barriers separating him and the Friend are dismantled.  Either he lives or the Friend.

He laid great emphasis on renunciation, zuhd; holding that the object should be to have no objective.  To lose an objective is to gain the objective.  A perfect dervish should remove from his heart the stain, stress and the burden of anything and everything.  He should not give place in his heart to anything and anyone except God Almighty Alone.  He should not pursue any other object.  He should desire nothing except God.  According to him, the real fast is the renunciation of all religious and worldly desires.  That was the fast of the zahid.

He said that there are three conditions attached to sama’, spiritual music: these relating to time, place, and community of interest.  It is through sama’ that the nearness of God is achieved.  It confers love on the heart, it gives sincerity to the head, unity to the soul, service to the body, and vision to the eye.

Khwaja Mu’in ad-Din Jisty (q.s.) was a noted poet and left a collection of poems in Persian.  Among his other known books, all originally written in Persian, are Anis al-Arwah, Ahadits al-Ma’arif; Risalah al-Mawjudiyyah; Kanj al-Iswrar; Kashf al-lswrar; and Afaq al-Anfas.  Khwaja Jisty (q.s.) was a source of inspiration and illumination and his discourses reveal great spiritual insight.  They are contained in a book entitled Dalil al-‘Arifin, by his premier caliph, Khwaja Quthb ad-Din Bakhtiyar Kaki (q.s.) of Osh.


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