Tuesday, 7 September 2010

The Fiqh of 'Iydayn

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

It is recorded by Imam Abu Dawud (r.a.) in his Sunan, that ‘Anas (r.a.) said that the Prophet (s.a.w.) migrated to the city of Madina and saw the people celebrating two days of festivities.  He asked, “What are these two days?”

The people replied, “They were days of festivities in the Jahiliyyah.”

Then he said, “Verily Allah has Replaced these two days with what is better for you - the day of Adhha and the day of Fithr.”  The ‘Iydayn are ’Iyd al-Fithr, on the 1st Shawwal, following Ramadhan; and ‘Iyd al-Adhha, the 10th Dzu al-Hijjah, following the Yawm al-Arafat.  The three days following ‘Iyd al-Adhha are known as the days of tashriq, the 11th, 12th, and 13th Dzu al-Hijjah.

‘Iyd al-Fithr and ‘Iyd al-Adhha both mark the remembrance of a major act of ‘ibadah‘Iyd al-Fithr commemorates the end of fasting for the month of Ramadhan.  ‘Iyd al-Adhha comes after the day of Arafat, the most significant day of the hajj.  The sacrifice of ‘Iyd al-Adhha, the qurban, symbolises the submission of Abraham (a.s.) who was prepared to sacrifice his own son, Ishmael (a.s.) for the sake of his Lord.  Allah (s.w.t.) Replaced Abraham’s (a.s.) son with a ram instead.  ‘Iyd al-Fithr has a mandatory tithe, zakat al-fithr, given to certain categories of the needy, from those who meet certain minimum requirements, while remaining an overall recommendation for all to give in charity beyond their normal habit.  ‘Iyd al-Adhha has the same recommendation in addition to sharing a third of the sacrificial meat with the needy, and a third for the community.

According to Imam Abu Hanifah (r.a.), the congregational ‘Iyd prayer, swalat al-‘iyd is wajib upon the same individuals who are obliged to attend the swalah al-jumu’ah.  These individuals are sane, adult men, which excludes women and children; residents, which excludes travelers; and those in good health, which excludes the seriously ill.  However, if women, children, travelers or sick individuals attend the swalat al-‘iyd, they are rewarded for their attendance.  The aforementioned point is merely illustrating that it is not incumbent upon them to attend, which means that they are not sinful if they miss the prayer.  According to Imam Malik (r.a.) and Imam ash-Shafi’i (r.a.), it is a sunnah al-mu’akkadah.  And according to Imam ibn Hanbal (r.a.), it is a fardh al-kifayah.

The swalat al-‘Iyd al-Fithr prayer may be performed any time after the sun completely rises to just before the entering of the zhuhr prayer time on the day of ‘Iyd, 1st of Shawwal.  It cannot be delayed beyond this day without a shari’ah compliant excuse.  If an excuse is present, the prayer can only be offered the day after, 2nd Shawwal, during the aforementioned time.  Thereafter, it cannot be performed.  If an excuse is not present, the prayer is not valid if it is delayed to the next day.  This is from Shaykh ‘Abd al-Ghani al-Maydani’s (r.a.) al-Lubab fi Sharh al-Kitab and Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Idah.

The swalat al-‘Iyd al-Adhha may be performed any time after the sun completely rises up to just before the entering of the zhuhr prayer time on the day of ‘Iyd, 10th of Dzu al-Hijjah.  It can be delayed beyond this day with or without a shari’ah compliant excuse, though the later is disliked.  If an excuse is present, then it is permissible to pray it during the aforementioned time the following day, 11th of Dzu al-Hijjah, or the day after that day, 12th of Dzu al-Hijjah, without dislike.  Thereafter, it cannot be performed.  If an excuse is not present, it is still valid to delay the prayer up to the 12th of Dzu al-Hijjah but with dislike.  Thereafter, it cannot be performed.  This is from Shaykh ‘Abd al-Ghani al-Maydani’s (r.a.) al-Lubab fi Sharh al-Kitab and Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Idah.

As recorded by Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.), the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, “Hasten al-Adhha and delay al-Fithr.”  Thus, it is recommended for the imam to delay commencing the swalah al- ‘Iyd al-Fithr for a short period and to hasten to pray the swalah al-‘Iyd al-Adhha.  This is from Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Haswkafi’s (r.a.) Hashiyyat al-Tahtawi.

If either swalat al-‘iyd prayer is performed before the sun completely rises, then the prayer does not count as the swalat al-‘iyd prayer.  Rather, it is considered as a swalat an-nafl and one is sinful for praying within a prohibitively disliked time.  This is from Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Haswkafi’s (r.a.) Durr al-Mukhtar fi Sharh Tanwir al-Abswar and Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Idah and Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Idah.

If while praying either swalat al-‘iyd, the sun reaches its zenith, then the prayer does not count as swalat al-‘iyd; it is considered a swalat an-nafl and one is sinful for praying within a prohibitively disliked time.  This is from Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyyah al-‘Alayyah and Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Haswkafi’s (r.a.) Durr al-Mukhtar fi Sharh Tanwir al-Abswar.

It is sunnah for the imam to give two short sermons after the performance of the swalat al-’iyd.  It is permissible to give the khuthbah before the swalat al-’iyd, but it is offensive because one has left the sunnah.  If the imam does not give a sermon at all, the swalat al-’iyd is still valid but it is offensive because one has left the sunnah.  This is from Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Idah and Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Idah and Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Haswkafi’s (r.a.) Hashiyyat al-Tahtawi.

During the khuthbah for swalat al-‘Iyd al-Fithr, the imam is to remind the community of the rulings related to zakat al-fithr.  For swalat al-‘Iyd al-Adhha, the imam is to teach the community the rulings related to sacrificing an animal and the invocation said on the days of tashriq, takbirat at-tashriq.  This is from Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Idah and Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyya al-‘Alayya.

Some scholars note that the imam should teach the rulings related to the takbirat at-tashriq during the swalah juma’ah the week before swalat al-‘Iyd al-Adhha because it becomes wajib to say the takbir at-tashriq before the swalat al-‘Iyd al-Adhha is performed.  The takbirat at-tashriq begins after the swalah fajr on the day of Arafat.  This is from Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Idah and Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Idah.

It is wajib to listen to the ‘iyd khuthbah, and everything disliked during the Friday khuthbah is disliked during the ‘iyd khuthbah.  This is from Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Haswkafi’s (r.a.) Durr al-Mukhtar fi Sharh Tanwir al-Abswar.

Both swalat al-‘iyd are only two rak’ah.  It is wajib for both the imam and congregation to give the additional takbirat for ‘iyd during the prayer.  This is from Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyyah al-‘Alayyah.

To perform the prayer as the imam, the imam makes the intention in the heart to be the imam of the swalat al-‘iyd.  It is recommended to say the intention with the tongue.  The imam says the opening takbir in order to commence the prayer.  The imam says the opening supplication quietly to oneself.  He give three additional takbirat for ‘iyd.  For each additional takbir, the imam raises his hands like the opening takbir.  He says the takbir out loud, returns his hands to his sides, and pauses for a brief moment before proceeding with the next takbir.  After the third and final takbir, the imam places his hands together, right on top of left under the navel.  The imam seeks refuge from Satan and recites the Basmallah quietly.  The imam recites Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah out loud.  It is recommended to recite Surah al-‘Ala in full.  The imam says the sunnah takbir while moving into the ruku’ position and completes the raka’at as usual.  The imam does not raise his hands when saying takbir as he moves into the ruku’ or sujud.

In the second raka’at, the imam recites the Basmallah quietly upon returning to the qiyam from sujud.  The imam recites Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah.  It is recommended to recite Surah al-Ghashiyyah in full.  The imam gives three additional takbirat for ‘iyd.  For each additional takbir, the imam raises his hands like the opening takbir.  He says the takbir out loud, returns his hands to his sides, and pauses for a brief moment before proceeding with the next takbir.  After the third and final takbir, the imam places his arms next to his sides.  It is permissible to give the additional takbir before reciting the Qur’an in the second raka’at.  The difference of opinion regarding this matter relates to optimality, not validity.  The imam says the sunnah takbir while moving into the ruku’ position and completes the raka’at as usual.  The imam does not raise his hands when saying takbir as he moves into the ruku’ or sujud.  The imam sits for the tashahud, gives Blessings upon the Prophet (s.a.w.), and says the two final salaam.  This is from Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Haswkafi’s (r.a.) Durr al-Mukhtar fi Sharh Tanwir al-Abswar and Hashiyyat al-Tahtawi, Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyya al-‘Alayya and Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah.

To perform the swalat al-‘iyd as a follower, congregant, the congregant makes the intention in one’s heart to perform the swalat al-‘iyd as a follower of the imam.  It is recommended to say the intention with one’s tongue.  The congregant gives the opening takbir with the imam.  The congregant says the opening supplication quietly to oneself.  The congregant gives three additional takbirat with the imam.  For each additional takbir, the congregant raises his hands like the opening takbir.  He says the takbir out loud, returns his hands to his sides, and pauses for a brief moment before proceeding with the next takbir.  For a man, after the third and final takbir, he places his hands together, right on top of left under the navel.  For a woman, she places her hands upon her chest.  The congregant listens to the imam recite Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah.  The congregant says the sunnah takbir while moving into the ruku’ position and completes the raka’at as usual.  The congregant does not raise his hands when saying takbir as he moves into the ruku’ or sujud.

In the second raka’at, the congregant listens to the imam recite Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah upon standing up from sujud.  The congregant gives three additional takbirat with the imam.  For each additional takbir, the congregant raises his hands like the opening takbir.  He says the takbir out loud with the imam, returns his hands to his sides, and pauses for a brief moment before proceeding with the next takbir with the imam.  After the third and final takbir, the congregant places his arms next to his sides.  The congregant says takbir while moving ruku’ with the imam and completes the raka’at as usual.  He does not raise the hands when saying takbir as he moves into the ruku’ or sujud.  The congregant sits for the tashahud, gives blessings upon the Prophet (s.a.w.), and says the two final salaam with the imam.  This is from Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Haswkafi’s (r.a.) Durr al-Mukhtar fi Sharh Tanwir al-Abswar and Hashiyyat al-Tahtawi, Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyyah al-‘Alayyah and Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah.

If the imam pronounces more than three takbirat, the congregant simply follows the imam with regards to the number of takbirat.  He can follow him up to sixteen takbirat according to Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah.  The sunnah practice has been reported in different ways, and the difference between the schools of thought on this is in terms of optimality, not validity.  This is according to Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Haswkafi’s (r.a.) Hashiyyat al-Tahtawi.

If the imam goes into ruku’ before saying any of the additional takbir for ’iyd, then he says them while in ruku’.  He does not return to the standing position to say them, but if he does stand up, the prayer is still valid.  This is according to Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Haswkafi’s (r.a.) Hashiyyat al-Tahtawi.

Whoever joins the swalat al-’iyd as a latecomer must still say the additional takbir for ‘iyd in what was missed with the imam.  There are a few possible scenarios.  In the first scenario, if one joins a raka’at after the imam has said the additional takbirat for ‘iyd but the imam is still standing for recitation, then one pronounces the opening takbir standing, and says the additional takbir for ‘iyd, even if the imam is reciting the Qur’an.

In the second scenario, if one joins the raka’at while the imam is in ruku’ and one does not fear missing the ruku’ with the imam, then one pronounces the opening takbir in qiyam, and remains in qiyam and says the additional takbir for ’iyd, then joins the imam in ruku’.

In the third scenario, if one joins the first raka’at while the imam is in ruku’ but fears missing ruku’ with the imam, then one pronounces the opening takbir in qiyam, goes into ruku’ with the imam, and says the additional takbir for ‘iyd while in ruku’ before giving the tasbih of ruku` and without raising the hands.  If the imam begins to stand up while one is still saying the additional takbirat for ‘iyd, then what remains of the additional takbir are dropped, even if it is all of them.  One does not make them up in the second raka’at.

In the final scenario, if one joins the first raka’at after the imam has gone into ruku’ or joins in the second raka’at, then after the imam gives the final salam one makes up the first raka’at missed.  As such, one stands up, recites Surah al-Fatihah and a short surah, then says the additional takbir for ‘iyd.  The reason one recites the Qur’an before saying the additional takbir in this situation is due to the fact that none of the swahabah have related otherwise.

This is from Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Haswkafi’s (r.a.) Durr al-Mukhtar fi Sharh Tanwir al-Abswar and Hashiyyat al-Tahtawi, Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyyah al-‘Alayyah and Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah.

One can perform tayammum for the swalat al-‘iyd if he fears that by busying himself with wudhu, he will miss the jama’ah for swalat al-‘iyd.  This ruling applies even if one is performing swalat al-‘iyd in a city and is not ill.  This is from Shaykh 'Abd al-Ghani al-Maydani’s (r.a.) al-Lubab fi Sharh al-Kitab.  This is an exception to the general rule as one is normally obliged to perform wudhu when sufficient water is present.  The reason for the permissibility of tayammum in this circumstance is because the swalat al-‘iyd does not have a replacement prayer if missed.  This ruling does not apply to the Friday swalah juma’ah or other swalah.

If one misses the swalat al-‘iyd, he cannot perform it alone.  The swalat al-‘iyd is only performed in a jama’ah.  This is from Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyya al-‘AlayyaIf one misses the swalat al-‘iyd, he does not make it up.  Likewise, if one joins the swalat al-‘iyd prayer but for some reason his prayer becomes invalid, then he cannot make up the swalat al-‘iyd by himself nor will a makeup be necessary.  For those who missed the swalat al-‘iyd, it is recommended to pray the supererogatory swalah adh-dhuha’ with four rak’ah.  This was related by the ibn Mas’ud (r.a.).  This is found in Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘IddahIf it was incumbent upon one to attend, then he must repent for missing a wajib swalah.

On the day of ’Iyd al-Fithr, it is recommended to wake up early, preferably before fajr or at the entering of fajr; pray the swalah fajr in jama’ah in the masjid; and eat something sweet after swalah fajr before going to the ‘iyd prayer area.  He should consume dates if available, in odd numbers.  He is to perform ghusl before the ‘iyd prayer, even for one not attending the prayer; clean his teeth, using a siwak is preferable; and wear scented perfume.  It is sunnah to wear the best clothes, whether the most beautiful, the cleanest or the newest garments.  White is preferable but not obligatory.  It is preferable to give swadaqah as much as possible.  He should constantly recite takbir quietly on the way to the prayer area and only stop when the imam begins the swalat al-‘iyd; go to the ’iyd prayer area by foot if possible; and pay the zakat al-fithr, if it is necessary.  It would be preferable to pay it before the morning of ‘iyd.  He should arrive early at the ‘iyd prayer area to join the front swaff; and return from a different direction after performing the swalat al-‘iyd.  This is from Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyyah al-‘Alayyah.

The swalah and the recommendations for ‘Iyd al-Fithr are the same for ‘Iyd al-Adhha, except that eating is delayed until after swalat al-‘Iyd al-Adhha, whereas for ’Iyd al-Fithr, it is recommended to eat before the swalah.  The takbir for swalah al-‘Iyd al-Adhha is said out loud, whereas for the swalah al-‘Iyd al-Fithr, it is recommended for the takbir to be said quietly.  There is no zakat al-fithr for ‘Iyd al-Adhha but an animal may be sacrificed for those financially able to do so.  This is from Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyyah al-‘Alayyah.

On the day of ‘Iyd, it is disliked to perform sunnah an-nafl before the swalat al-‘iyd in the ‘iyd prayer area or at home.  He should perform sunnah an-nafl after the swalat al-‘iyd in the ‘iyd prayer area but there is no harm in praying them at home.  Fasting on the two days of ‘Iyd and the three or four days of tashriq after ‘Iyd al-Adhha is forbidden.  This is from Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyyah al-‘Alayyah.

Regarding the takbir at-tashriq, Allah (s.w.t.) Says in the Qur’an:


Celebrate the praises of Allah during the Appointed days ... (Surah al-Baqarah:203)

The Qur’anic exegetes explain that the phrase ‘Appointed days’ refers to the days of tashriq.  This is from Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah.

The takbir at-tashriq is an invocation that is said once, out loud, immediately after performing each swalah fard starting from the swalah fajr on the day of Arafat, 9th Dzu al-Hijjah, up to the swalah ‘aswr five days later, 13th Dzu al-Hijjah.  This equals 23 prayers: 5 on the 9th to 12th, which equal 20, and 3 on the 13th.  This includes the swalah al-juma’ah if it falls within these days.  The takbir at-tashriq is not said for any of the sunnah nafl, the sunnah witr or sunnah janazah.  There is no harm in saying it after both of the swalat al-‘iyd.  This is from Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyyah al-‘Alayyah.

The Hanafi madzhab follows the position of Imam Abu Hanifah’s (q.s.) two companions, Imam Abu Yusuf (r.a.) and Imam Muhammad ash-Shaybani (r.a.), in this matter because it is more precautionary.  According to the two companions, chanting the takbir at-tashriq is wajib upon every man and woman who performs the swalah fard prayer in these days regardless if they are the imam, a ma’mum, a latecomer to the jama’ah, if the imam forgets to say it after the jama’ah, if they are praying alone, are traveling, or they are residents of a village.  This is from Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyyah al-‘Alayyah.

The members of the jama’ah say the takbir at-tashriq at least once, out loud, immediately after each obligatory prayer:


Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar.  Laa ilaha illa Allah wa Allahu akbar.  Allahu akbaru wa lillah il-Hamd.

Allah is Greater, Allah is Greater.  There is no God except Allah and Allah is Greater.  Allah is Greater and to Allah Belongs all Praise.’

After several times, they may end as follows:


Allahu akbaru kabiiran wa al-Hamdu lillahi katsiiran wa subhaana Allahu bukratan wa aswilaa.  Laa ilaha illaa Allah wa laa na’budu illaa iyyaahu mukhliswiina lahu ad-diin wa law kariha al-kaafiruun.  Laa ilaha illaa Allahu wahdahu swadaqa wa’dahu wa naswari ‘abdahu wa a’aza jundahu wa hazama wa al-ahzaaba wahdahu.  Laa ilaha illaa Allah wa Allahu akbar.  Allahu akbar wa lillah al-Hamdu.

Allah is Greater, and the Praise be to Him, and Glory be to Him from the dawn to the dusk, there is no god but Allah, and we worship none but He in all sincerity.  His is the Faith, regardless the displeasure of the unbelievers, there is no god but Allah alone.  He has Fulfilled His Promise, and made His servants victors, He has cherished His soldiers and defeated the confederates Himself, there is no god but Allah, and Allah is Greater, Allah is Greater and to Him be all Praise.

Women should say the takbir at-tashriq in a soft voice and not loudly.  It is optimal to say the takbir at-tashriq more than once according to Imam al-‘Ayni (r.a.).  This is from Imam ash-Shurunbulali’s (r.a.) Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-‘Iddah and Imam ‘Ala ad-Din ibn ‘Abidin’s (r.a.) al-Hadiyyah al-‘Alayyah.

Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Abidin (r.a.) in Radd al-Mukhtar ‘ala ad-Dur al-Mukhtar said it is wajib to make the takbir immediately after the final salaam of the fardh swalah.  If one talks purposely or forgetfully, loses one’s wudhu, or performs other actions completely foreign to the prayer, one has missed the wajib.


No comments:

Post a Comment

Thank you for taking the time to share our thoughts. Once approved, your comments will be posted.