Thursday, 23 October 2014
Adam's (a.s.) Wasilah through the Prophet (s.a.w.)
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
The concept of wasilah and tawaswswul is a sound doctrine in our ‘aqidah. The following hadits is a strong basis of it, and even the Wahhabi sect accepts that it is authentic, although they still deny wasilah, considering it shirk.
As recorded in al-Mustadrak asw-Swahihayn, by Imam al-Hakim (r.a.), ‘Umar ibn al-Khaththab (r.a.) reported that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, “When Adam committed his mistake, he said, ‘O my Lord, I ask you to Forgive me for the sake of Muhammad (s.a.w.).’
Allah Said, ‘O Adam, and how do you know about Muhammad (s.a.w.) whom I have not yet Created?’
Adam replied, ‘O my Lord, after You Created me with Your Hand and Breathed into me of Your Spirit, I raised my head and saw written on the heights of the Throne, ‘Laa Ilaha Illa Allah, Muhammadar Rasulullah.’ I understood that You would not Place next to Your Name but the Most Beloved One of Your Creation.’
Allah Said, ‘O Adam, I have Forgiven you, and were it not for Muhammad, I would not have Created you.’”
Imam al-Hakim (r.a.) said, after narrating it, “This hadits has a swahih chain, and it is the first hadits that I have mentioned from ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Zayd ibn Aslam in this book.” Imam al-Hakim (r.a.) was an outstanding imam of ahadits. He knew well that Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Zayd ibn Aslam (r.a.) was declared weak by other a’immah, so why did he classify this narration swahih? We must understand that the a’immah do not consider only the strength of the narrators in the chain. Amongst the many things they consider include the matn, the text, of hadits. And they also consider its relationship with the Qur’an and other ahadits, from swahih to dha’if. After consideration of all the relevant factors, an overwhelming majority of scholars have declared this hadits as Swahih.
Shaykh al-Islam, Imam Taqi ad-Din as-Subki (r.a.) confirmed Imam al-Hakim’s (r.a.) authentication, in his Shifa’ as-Siqam fi Ziyarat al-Khayr al-An’am, “Although he knew well that some scholars had declared ‘Abd ar-Rahman weak.”
Qadhi ‘Iyadh (r.a.), the great scholar of sirah and ahadits, narrated it under the third chapter of his ash-Shifa’ in which he wrote, “This chapter is about swahih and famous narrations,” and he said that Imam Abu Muhammad al-Makki (r.a.) and Imam Abu al-Layts as-Samarqandi (r.a.) mention it. Qadhi ‘Iyadh (r.a.) also wrote, “It is said that this hadits explains the verse …” and he mentioned the following verse.
Then learnt Adam, from his Lord, Words of Inspiration and his Lord Turned toward him; for He is Oft-Returning Most Merciful. (Surah al-Baqarah:37)
Qadhi ‘Iyadh (r.a.) continued to cite another, very similar, version through Imam al-Ajurri (q.s.).
Imam ibn al-Jawzi (r.a.) was one of the strictest scholars in jirah wa ta’dil. Jirah wa ta’dil refers to a discipline in the science of ahadits criticism, whereby a systematic criticism and understanding of the exact position of a narrator is established. The function of al-jarh, which literally means “to injure”, is to discover whether a narrator was ever declared a liar, a fabricator of ahadits; whether he had a poor memory; whether he was ever declared as unknown, majhul; or if he was of sound religion. at-Ta’dil, which means, the “establishment of worthiness”, is to establish the position of the narrator as wholly trustworthy, merely trustworthy, or acceptable, or whatever is appropriate. al-Jarh has the negative function of criticism while at-ta`dil is the positive function of authentication. This discipline is based on the following verse:
O ye who believe! If a wicked person comes to you with any news, ascertain the truth, lest ye harm people unwittingly, and afterwards become full of repentance for what ye have done. (Surah al-Hujraat:6)
Imam ibn al-Jawzi (r.a.) also considered this hadits swahih, which he cited it in the first chapter of al-Wafa’ bi Ahwal al-Musthafa. In the introduction, he wrote about this book, “I do not mix the sound ahadits with the false.”
Although he knew of Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Zayd’s (r.a.) weakness as a narrator; he also mentioned the version of Maysarah al-Fajr (r.a.) whereby the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, “When Satan deceived Adam and Eve, they repented and sought intercession to Allah with my name.”
Imam ibn al-Jawzi (r.a.) also wrote, in the chapter concerning the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) superiority over the other prophets in the same book, “Part of the exposition of his superiority to other prophets is the fact that Adam asked his Lord through the sanctity of Muhammad that He Relent towards him, as we have already mentioned.”
The leading authority for the Salafis and their “Shaykh al-Islam”, Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.) also accepted this hadits as authentic. He quoted elsewhere, the other version through Maysarah (r.a.) and wrote regarding it in his Fatawa, “These two are like the elucidation of the authentic ahadits…” and then he quoted the hadits.
Commenting on this, Imam ibn ‘Alawi al-Maliki (q.s.) wrote, “This indicates that ibn Taymiyyah found the hadits sound enough to be considered a witness for other narrations, because the forged and the false are not taken as witness by the people of ahadits.”