Friday, 14 December 2012

Ending a Du’a with Surah al-Fatihah

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

The following is taken from Ending a Du’a with Surah al-Fatihah by Shaykh ‘Ali Juma'ah.

It is legally permissible to read Surah al-Fatihah on the following occasions: When beginning or ending supplication, for fulfilling needs, when commencing reconciliation gatherings and when conducting marriage contracts and the like.

This is based on general legal evidences recommending reading the Qur`an on the one hand and the numerous legal evidences denoting the special importance of Surah al-Fatihah for achieving goals, fulfilling needs and facilitating matters on the other.

There are general evidences from primary texts:


Those who rehearse the Book of Allah, establish regular prayer, and spend (in charity) out of what We have Provided for them, secretly and openly, hope for a commerce that will never fail: (Surah Fathir:29)

Abu Umamah al-Bahli (r.a.) narrated that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, "Read the Qur`an for verily it will come on the Day of Judgment as an intercessor for its reciters."  This is recorded in Swahih Muslim.

It is established in uswul al-fiqh, the principles of Islamic jurisprudence, that Commands which are muthlaq, unconditional, demand their general applicability with regards to people, circumstances, times and places.  This means that, when Allah Almighty Legislates a matter in a general, 'aam, or unconditional fashion, it must be applied as such; it is not permissible to restrict or specify it in any manner without evidence (s.a.w.)e from Islamic law.  Restricting matters that Allah (s.w.t.) and His Messenger have left open and capacious leads to innovation in religion.

The Prophet's (s.a.w.) observance of certain parts of general comprehensive rulings, 'umum ash-shumuli, or general rulings denoting specificity, 'umum al-badali, does not specify the general nor restrict the unconditional as long as he did not prohibit otherwise.  Legal theorists have explained this through the legal axiom "Abstention is not proof."  Meaning, the fact that the Prophet (s.a.w.) refrained from performing certain acts is not proof to their prohibition.  Muslim scholars from among the predecessors and successors have unanimously agreed on this.

Applying the legal axiom

Despite his thorough understanding of the concept of offensive bid'ah, the Hanbali scholar, Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.) fathomed this legal axiom and applied it to his acts of worship by making Surah al-Fatihah part of his wird, daily portion of recitations.  Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah's (r.a.) student, Shaykh Abu Hafs al-Bazzar (r.a.), wrote in his book al-'Alam al-'Aliya fi Manaqib ibn Taymiyyah that his teacher would read Surah al-Fatihah repeatedly after fajr until sunrise.  If the Prophet's (s.a.w.) abstention from reading Surah al-Fatihah in this manner evidences its impermissibility, then Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah's (r.a.) practice would have been considered a bid'ah that contradicts the sunnah.  However, since dzikr and Qur`anic recitations are unrestricted and are only determined by what a Muslim finds in his heart, Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah's (r.a.) act is legally permissible.

In general, Surah al-Fatihah is a part of the Qur`an and a kind of dzikr.  It is permissible to recite it under any conditions in the absence of restrictive evidence, such as the prohibition of reciting the Qur`an while in a state of janabah, major ritual impurity.

The virtues of Surah al-Fatihah

Legal evidences have established that Surah al-Fatihah, in particular, excels over other Qur`anic chapters with regards to achieving goals, fulfilling needs, facilitating matters and answering the du'a.

Allah Almighty Says:


And We have Bestowed upon thee the Seven Oft-Repeated (verses) and the Grand Qur'an. (Surah al-Hijr:87)

Abu Sa'id ibn al-Mu'alla (r.a.) narrated that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, "'All praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds' is the seven oft-repeated verses and the great Qur`an which I was given."  This is recorded in Swahih al-Bukhari.

The Prophet (s.a.w.) said to Jabir ibn 'Abdullah (r.a.), "O Jabir, shall I inform you of the best Surah in the Qur`an?"

Jabir (r.a.) replied, "Yes, O Messenger of Allah."

The Prophet (s.a.w.) said, "The Opening of the Book."

Jabir (r.a.), the narrator of the hadith, said, "I think the Prophet added, ‘It is a cure for every disease,’"  This is recorded by Imam al-Bayhaqi (r.a.) in Shu'ab al-Iman.

'Ubaydah ibn asw-Swamit (r.a.) narrated that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, "The Mother of the Qur`an is a substitute for any other surah while any other surah is not a substitute for it."  This is recorded by Imam ad-Darqutni (r.a.) and Imam al-Hakim (r.a.).

Status of Surah al-Fatihah in the Shari'ah

Rukn of Swalah

The majority of scholars have agreed that reciting Surah al-Fatihah in every rak'ah of prescribed and voluntary prayers is obligatory for its validity.  It is also legally established to recite it in the funeral prayer.

Ruqyah

The special virtues of Surah al-Fatihah, is what led Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (r.a.) to recite it as a ruqyah without prior permission from the Prophet (s.a.w.) and without being informed by him that it comprises healing words.  When Abu Sa'id (r.a.) told the Prophet (s.a.w.) of what he did, the Prophet (s.a.w.) did not censure him or consider his action a bid'ah but approved and deemed it valid and asked him, "How did you know it was the words which cure?"  This is recorded in Swahih al-Bukhari and Swahih  Muslim.  In another narration, the Prophet (s.a.w.) told the companions, "You were right." This is found in Swahih al-Bukhari.

A Protection from Evil

Although there were no legal texts specifying the recitation of Surah al-Fatihah on certain occasions, it was reported that the companions exhorted the people to recite it.  Asma` bint Abu Bakr (r.a.) said, "Whoever reads Surah al-Fatihah, Surah al- Ikhlasw, Surah al-Falaq and Surah an-Naas after performing Jumu'ah prayer, will be protected until the next Friday."  This is recorded by Imam ibn Abu Shaybah (r.a.) in his Muswannaf.

A Means to Bring Blessings

Commencing any matter with Surah al-Fatihah is patterned after its order in the noble Qur`an.  The word ‘fatihah’ means beginning and this is precisely the reason why the surah was so called since it occurs at the beginning of the Qur`an.  Therefore, reciting it at the inception of any matter is by way of seeking Allah's (s.w.t.) Guidance and Support.

In his book, Zad al-Ma'ad, the Hanbali scholar, Imam ibn al-Qayyim (r.a.) wrote on the virtues of Surah al-Fatihah: "Fatihat al-Kitab [Opening of the Book], Umm al-Qur`an [The Mother of the Qur`an], as-Sab' al-Matsani [The Seven Oft-Repeated Verses], ash-Shifa` at-Tam [The Perfect Cure], ad-Dawa` an-Nafi' [The Useful Treatment], ar-Ruqyah at-Tama [The Perfect Healing], Muftah al-Ghina wa al-Falah [Key to Richness and Success], Hafizhat al-Quwah [Protective Shield] and Dafi'at al-Ham wa al-Gham wa al-Khawf wa al-Huzn [Relief from Distress, Fear and Sorrow] are only actualized for a person who realises its status, gives it its due right, is aware of the manner of its application for illness and seeking its treatment and knows the secret of its potency.  When some of the companions realized these secrets, one of them read it over a person who was stung by a scorpion and he immediately recovered.  The Prophet asked them, ‘How did you know that it is a cure?’

A person who is granted success and insight will understand the mysteries of this surah and what it comprises.  It affirms monotheism; knowing of the Essence of Allah (s.w.t.), His Names, Attributes, and Actions and Decrees; establishes religious law; includes an acknowledgment of Allah's (s.w.t.) Right to being worshipped to the exception of everything else and His Exclusive Lordship; absolute reliance on Allah (s.w.t.) and the relegation of all affairs to Him, the Disposer of All Affairs to Whom Belongs all praise and all that is good; professing our need for His Help in Guiding us which is the core of happiness both in this life and in the next; knowing the relevancy of its meanings to the fulfillment of our interests and for warding off evils of this world and the next; and knowing that the prosperous and perfect outcome of our lives and blessings are contingent upon following its meanings.  This surah is a remedy for the ailments of mind and spirit, opens up the gates to abundant blessings and wards off evil.  To realise this, a person must develop a sublime disposition and the faculty of reflection and must foster his faith."

A Means to Fulfilling Needs

Scholars have based their opinion on the permissibility of reading Surah al-Fatihah for fulfilling needs on the hadits narrated by Abu Hurayrah (r.a.) in which the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, "Allah Almighty Says: 'I have Divided the prayer into two halves between Me and My slave and My slave shall have what he asks for.'  When the slave of Allah says, 'Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds', Allah Almighty Says, 'My slave has praised Me.'  When the slave says, 'The All-Merciful, the Compassionate', Allah Says, 'My slave has spoken well of Me'.  When the slave says, 'Owner of the Day of Judgment', Allah Says, 'My slave has glorified Me' [and in another narration 'My slave has submitted to Me'].  When the slave says, 'You Alone we worship and You Alone we ask for help', Allah Says, 'This is between Me and My slave, and for My slave is what he asks for.'  When the slave says, 'Guide us to the straight Path, the Path of those whom You have Blessed, not of those with whom You are angry, nor those who are in error,' Allah says, 'This is for My slave, and for My slave is what he asks for’"  This is recorded in Swahih Muslim amongst others.

The righteous predecessors followed this without censure.  In his book ats-Tsawab, Abu ash-Shaykh (r.a.) reported that 'Atha` (r.a.) said, "If you have a need, read Surah al-Fatihah in full and you will have [your need] fulfilled by the Will of Allah."

In his book, al-Asrar al-Marfu'ah, Mulla 'Ali al-Qari (r.a.) said, "This is the basis for the custom of reciting Surah al-Fatihah for fulfilling needs and achieving goals."

Established Opinions of the Four Followed Schools of Fiqh

The Hanafi Scholars

Hanafi scholars have maintained the recommendation of reading Surah a-Fatihah when sitting down for meals.  In his book, Bariqa Mahmuddiyah , under the section on food etiquette, Shaykh al-Khadimi (r.a.) wrote: "As for reading Surah a-Fatihah, some scholars have reported the opinion of ‘Ali al-Qari in his book Sharh Mukhtasar al-Ihya' in which he said, ‘The common practice of reciting Surah a-Fatihah, is recommended because it includes praising Allah and asking Him for Guidance to the straight path.’"

According to the dominant opinion of the Hanafis, it is permissible to read Surah a-Fatihah after obligatory prayers.  In his book Bariqa Mahmuddiya (vol.1, p.98), Shaykh al-Khadimi (r.a.) said, "There is a scholarly contention on reciting Surah a-Fatihah after obligatory prayers."

In Mi'raj ad-Dirayah, it is considered a bid'ah though it is recommended because it has become a custom.  It is therefore impermissible to prevent it.  In Shaykh Burhan ad-Din's (r.a.) collection of Fatawa, it is disliked to read Surah al-Fatihah, silently or audibly, after obligatory prayers.  In Shaykh as-Sa'di's (r.a.) collection of Fatawa, it is desirable to read Surah a-Fatihah after obligatory prayers.  In the collection of Fatawa Tatarkhaniyyah, al-Quniya and al-Ashbah: "Reciting Surah a-Fatihah after obligatory prayers takes precedence over reciting traditional invocations made at their prescribed times.  Among these are the numerous invocations which the Master of Mankind (s.a.w.) is reported to have made at the conclusion of obligatory prayers."  In Fuswul al-Asrushani: "Reading Surah a-Fatihah takes precedence over the traditional invocations at their prescribed times."

Based on these citations, the preponderant opinion is its permissibility due to the great number of scholars who maintained it.  An offensive bid'ah is that which is not based on evidence.  Surah al-Fatihah teaches us the manner of supplicating to Allah (s.w.t.) and asking Him for help.  It was Revealed to show the best manner of making du'a.  The best du'a is that which is made at the best times from among which are after obligatory prayers.  Thus, its permissibility is indisputable."

The Maliki Scholars

The Malikis have maintained the permissibility of reciting Surah al-Fatihah when seeing someone off on a journey.  In his commentary on ash-Sharh asw-Swaghir, Imam asw-Swawi (r.a.) said: "Shaykh Abd ar-Rahman at-Tajuri objected to reading Surah al-Fatihah when seeing someone off on a journey on the basis that it was not mentioned in the sunnah.  In response, al-Ajhuri commented that it was mentioned in some sunnah texts and is therefore permissible."

The Shafi'i Scholars

In his collection of Fatawa , Shaykh ash-Shihab ar-Ramli (r.a.) reported the following fatwa: “There is a basis in the sunnah for reciting Surah al-Fatihah after the du'a made at the end of some prayers due to the numerous virtues it entails.  The Prophet (s.a.w.) said, ‘The Opening of the Book is suspended to the Throne of Allah with no barrier between them.’

It is a surah like no other.  Scholars have said that it comprises the meanings of the entire Qur`an.  It is made up of twenty-five words which encompass the Qur`anic sciences since it includes praising Allah Most High through His Attributes of Perfection and Beauty; exhorting sincere observance of acts of worship; admitting one's incapability of performing acts of worship except with the Help of Allah; it includes supplications for guidance to the straight path and establishes the end of those who go astray.

The virtues of Surah al-Fatihah include the following: It is divided between Allah and His servant; prayers are invalid without it and the reward of its recitation outweighs that of any other good deed.  This is why it is known as Umm al-Qur`an.  It also has many names and this multiplicity is an indication of its importance.  These names include: the Surah of Du'a [supplication], Munaja [secret talk with Allah (s.w.t.)], at-Tafwid [referring affairs to Allah (s.w.t.)], ar-Raqiya [healing], ash-Shifa` [the cure] as per the words of the Prophet (s.a.w.): ‘It [Surah al-Fatihah] is a cure for every disease.’  Scholars said, 'If one is ill, he is to recite Surah al-Fatihah because it is a cure.'”

In his collection of al-Fatawa al-Fiqhiya al-Kubra, Shaykh ibn Hajar al-Haytsami (r.a.) mentioned, "It is recommended to read Surah al-Fatihah when afflicted with the plague since it is a cure for every disease."

The Hanbali Scholars

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (r.a.) used Surah al-Fatihah in writing permissible amulets.  Shaykh ibn Muflih (r.a.) wrote in al-Adab ash-Shari'ah: "al-Maruzi said, 'A woman who was living alone complained to Abu Abdullah of loneliness.  Thereupon, he wrote the name of Allah, Surah al-Fatihah, Surah al-Ikhlasw, Surah al-Falaq, Surah an-Naas and Ayat al-Kursi on a piece of paper [and gave it to her]."

It was previously mentioned that Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah (r.a.) made Surah al-Fatihah his morning wird.  His student, Imam ibn al-Qayyim (r.a.), recommended that a mufti is to recite it before issuing fatawa.  He reported this opinion from some of the predecessors although the sunnah does not mention anything in this regard.  In his book 'Ilam al-Muwaqi'in 'an Rabb al-'Alamin, Imam ibn al-Qayyim (r.a.) said, "It is only fitting that a mufti make the du'a in abundance: 'O Allah, Lord of Jibril, Mika'il and Israfil; Originator of the heavens and earth and Knower of the seen and the unseen!  You Adjudicate between Your servants regarding their differences, so by Your Leave, direct me to the truth of that which they differ on. Verily, You guide whom You will to the straight path.’  Before issuing a fatwa, some of the predecessors would say, ‘Glory be to You!  We have knowledge only of what You have Taught us.  You are the All Knowing and All Wise.’  Some of them would recite Surah al-Fatihah and we tried it with the best results."

The predecessors and successors followed this practice.  The Hanbali scholar, Shaykh Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Hadi (r.a.), who was known as ibn al-Mibrad authored a treatise on the virtues of Surah al-Fatihah, entitled al-Isti'ana bi al-Fatihah 'ala Nagah al-`Umur in which he quoted and commented on Imam ibn al-Qayyim's (r.a.) previous words in Zad al-Ma'ad.  In his book, he said: "ibn al-Qayyim's words are praiseworthy; however, when compared to the virtues of Surah al-Fatihah, they are merely tantamount to the dip of the bird's beak in the sea or to a drop of water that it drinks from it.  Our Shaykh, Abu al-Faragh ibn al-Hibal depended heavily on Surah al-Fatihah for fulfilling needs and resolving matters successfully.  When making amulets, he would commence by writing Surah al-Fatihah, recite it over them and then recite it once more when folding them up.  And whenever he would write a letter to anyone, he would recite it over the letter.  I testify to its great virtue as a means of fulfilling needs.  I read it for matters of both this world and the Hereafter and they prospered.  How many times has its recitation successfully resolved difficult and unattainable matters and yielded better results?  It is indeed a great surah and you should recite it in abundance for the prosperity of all matters, needs, treatments and every aspect of life.  Reflect on this and you will find its virtues manifest.  It has many virtues and countless secrets that only manifest themselves to those who discern.  Allah is the Ever-Supporter and Giver of success."

The Ruling

Contesting opinions that crop up every so often concerning the matter of dzikr, which the predecessors and successors practiced, and which prevent people from practicing it in their homes, gatherings and at their times of joy, are but attributes of innovation and misguidance irrespective of their purport.  It is indeed fatal to call for eliminating Muslims' customs that have been established by Islamic civilisation throughout its history and which have fashioned the behavior and traditions of Muslims under the pretext of following and applying the teachings of the shari'ah.  Advocates of this false claim are unaware or heedless to the fact that such a call may forfeit the religious essence of public ceremonies and eliminate dzikr from social life and cultural system which is precisely the call of materialists and atheists.  Hence, such ignorant folk who talk about what they do not know must be mindful of Allah (s.w.t.) and leave the matter of fatwa to the prudent scholars who are versed in the reality of the times and understand the consequences of rulings.


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